RG 48/A1/01

Inventory to the Records of the Peithessophian Society of Rutgers College, 1825-1927

By Neil Binderglass, Stephanie Dyson and Jane McGuinness

April, 1994

Special Collections and University Archives, Rutgers University Libraries

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Peithessophian Society of Rutgers College
Title: Inventory to the Records of the Peithessophian Society of Rutgers College
Dates: 1825-1927
Quantity: 5 cubic ft. (16 manuscript boxes)
Abstract: Records of the Peithessophian Society, a student literary group founded at Rutgers College in 1825 for the intellectual broadening of its members. The Society ranged widely in membership size, probably over one hundred by the mid-19th century. It declined in membership after the Civil War, although it continued to exist until the late 1890's. It was revived briefly in the 1920's.
Collection No.: RG 48/A1/01
Language English.
Repository: Rutgers University Libraries. Special Collections and University Archives.

Administrative History of the Peithessophian Society of Rutgers College


College literary societies played important social, intellectual, and educational roles in nineteenth century higher learning. Through the literary societies students developed the skills of rhetoric and statesmanship that helped more fully utilize the classical education being taught in college classrooms. Rhetorical skills were honed through the writing of essays, orations before the society, and participation in debates. The societies also sought to increase their members exposure to literature by establishing private libraries that were often more diverse than that of the college. Society libraries contained a wide range of essays, novels, poetry in such areas as literature, philosophy, science, and religion. Correspondence soliciting honorary membership with intellectual, political, and religious leaders further fostered the sense of belonging to the world of learning and power. Another important function of the literary societies was to develop leadership skills through self government. Literary societies had their own constitutions and by-laws which governed the working of the society and demanded hard work and discipline from its members. Literary societies were encouraged by both faculty and college administrators, who recognized their importance to a well rounded and truly effective college education. Though providing encouragement, most colleges offered little in the way of financial assistance. Most societies were able to support themselves through membership dues, fines, and donations from alumnae and honorary members.

Most of the colonial colleges, including Queen's College, developed literary societies in the 18th century. The heyday of literary societies came in the first half of the 19th century with a profusion of new colleges springing up across the nation, and with them, literary societies, usually two rival societies at each institution. During this period, no self-respecting student would consider not belonging to one of the literary societies. The increasing popularity of fraternities and intercollegiate sports in the latter half of the century signaled a change in dynamics of extracurricular campus life, moving from an era dominated by one activity to another where multiple activities coexisted and flourished. Eventually fraternities would eclipse literary societies as the dominant social forces on campus, but for most of the second half of the century both would serve important functions and actively coexist.

The first literary societies at Rutgers were the Athenian and Polemical Societies of Queen's College. The Polemical Society is known only through references in letters written to and from John Bogart, a graduate of Queen's College and tutor during the Revolutionary War. Minutes of the Athenian Society survive as "Transactions of the Athenian Society, 1776-1786," available in the Rutgers University Archives. The instability of the college itself at that time, which was forced to close a number of times, affected the continuance of the literary societies. With the college opening it doors again at the turn of the century, the Calleopean Society was formed around 1810, and quickly established a library of over 200 books. However, the society did not last long and the college itself fell on hard times and was again forced to close. The reopening of Queen's College as Rutgers College in 1825 proved to be auspicious for the college, beginning a span of uninterrupted education that continues to this day. That first term in 1825 immediately heralded the founding of the Philoclean and Peithessophian literary societies that would feature prominently in the life of the college for the next 70 years.

History of the Peithossophian Society of Rutgers College

The name "Peithessophian means "persuasiveness of wisdom." The Peithessophian Society was founded in 1825 by Professor James Spencer Canon. Traditionally, the Society celebrated its anniversary during the last two weeks of July. William Demarest, in his A History of Rutgers College 1766-1924, states that the Peithessophian Society was founded within a month of the reconstitution of Rutgers College in 1825, several weeks earlier than its rival, the Philoclean Society. "College opened November 14 [1825] ; the date of the founding of Philoclean is reasonably well fixed as December 8, 1825; and Peithessophian, tradition says, was even earlier. . . . No original constitution is extant; the earliest copy of that of Peithessophian, known as revised, is of April 21, 1827; the earliest copy of that of Philoclean is November 11, 1831" (Demarest, pp. 297-298). The Societies' first known joint anniversary celebration was held on July 18, 1826.

The Peithessophian Society was a student literary society, descended from the eighteenth century literary societies, Athenian and Polemic. Both Peithessophian and Philoclean were founded for the intellectual broadening of their members and they both maintained their own libraries which were the central components of nineteenth century literary societies. These libraries compensated for the weaknesses of the Rutgers College Library. In 1832 the Rutgers College library held 1,290 titles and Peithessophian held 771 titles. The vast majority of the College's books were theological in nature while the strength of the Peithessophian library was literature (384 volumes) . Initially the society met in a room in Old Queens. In 1830, a new grammar school, known today as Alexander Johnston Hall, was built on the corner of College Avenue and Somerset Street and the college gave the second floor over to the two literary societies, providing each with a room to hold meetings and house their libraries. In 1848, the Societies and their libraries moved into Van Nest Hall, where they maintained and furnished their own rooms. After the move, meetings were held every Thursday evening.

Another significant function of Society activity was the sponsorship of speakers and the performance of literary exercises at weekly meetings. These exercises consisted of weekly debates on topics of current or historical interest. There were also writing exercises where essays were written on given topics, often of an Emersonian nature, that were submitted anonymously to the "Reader's Box" for critique. Speeches were given by incoming presidents, and were called inaugural addresses. On occasion, speeches were given before the group by alumni or honorary members. The Society had to acquire speakers for larger audiences as well. The Peithessophian and Philoclean Societies alternated yearly the responsibility for selecting the orator for the Junior Exhibition, held a few days before Commencement. The Exhibition featured music interspersed between orators, a format that was also followed for the anniversary celebrations, except the Exhibition featured only student members' speeches. Speakers also had to selected each year for the anniversary celebration. These speakers were often honorary members, graduate members, or other esteemed personages. The speeches were sometimes published by the Society as a fundraising effort.

The most famous speech delivered before the Peithessophian and Philoclean Societies was the 1838 address of William Wirt, statesman and former Attorney General of the U.S. (1817). The address remained popular for much of the nineteenth century since it appeared to foreshadow the coming Civil War. In fact, the essay was also published in France and Germany.

The major source of funds for the literary societies was the collection of dues, both general dues and specific payments designated for the library. Fines were often levied against members for infractions of a large variety of rule. It also seems likely that honorary members gave a monetary or literary donation upon acceptance of a nomination to the Society, although only a few letters specifically mention this. Funds were used to purchase books and badges as well as furnishings for rooms in Van Nest Hall, coal, lighting, paper, ink and other basic supplies. Sums were also paid for services such as cleaning and the ringing of the bell. The selling of rosettes at Commencement was another fundraising project for many years.

The Peithesopphian Society ranged widely in membership size, probably over one hundred members in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Civil War the membership tapered off, and by the 1880s meetings were commonly attended by only a dozen or so members present. At the time, literary exercises were often dispensed with at meetings, and reports were not maintained regularly. The last record for the Society in these files is dated 1891. The 1896 Scarlet Letter describes Van Nest Hall as the home of the Peithessophian and Philoclean Societies, but the 1897 Scarlet Letter only mentions the Philoclean and Peithessophian is not mentioned again until its revival more than two decades later.

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Scope and Content Note

The records of the Peithessophian Society date from 1825 to 1891, with a supplementary set of papers from the Society's brief revival dating 1923 to 1927. These records include various papers, minutes, letters, receipts and reports. The bulk of the records date from the 1830's through the 1870's. There are numerous bound volumes in the collection, mostly ledgers that were used for Treasurer's records, library records, and minutes. Letters from honorary members were also bound and in several instances, speeches by featured honorary members were published in pamphlet form.

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Arrangement Note

The records are arranged in five series that reflect the major composition of the collection:

I. Financial Affairs of the Society
II. Society Business
III. Society Activities
IV. Librarian's Records
V. Records of the Society, 1923-1927

Each series is divided into sub-series which contain specific types of documents or volumes. These documents or volumes are then arranged chronologically within folders. The previous arrangement had all loose papers interfiled in six boxes, roughly arranged by decade with bound volumes placed in boxes by subject. The current arrangement ensures that like materials are kept together without regard to format.

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Name and Subject Tracings

Personal Names

Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915.
Bryant, William Cullen, 1794-1878.
Cannon, James Spencer.
Clay, Henry, 1777-1852.
Coxe, Richard S. (Richard Smith), 1792-1865.
Dwight, Theodore W. (Theodore William), 1822-1892.
Fillmore, Millard, 1800-1874.
Frelinghuysen, Frederick T. (Frederick Theodore), 1817-1885.
Frelinghuysen, Theodore, 1787-1862.
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882.
Ogilby, John D. (John David), 1810-1851.
Potts, Stacy G. (Stacy Gardner), 1799-1865.
Sergeant, John, 1799-1852.
Stevens, Alexander H. (Alexander Hodgdon), 1789-1869.
Strange, Robert, 1796-1854.
Vethake, Henry, 1792-1866.

Corporate Names

Peithesopphian Society of Rutgers College--History--Sources.
Rutgers College--History--19th century.
Rutgers College--Libraries--19th century.
Rutgers College--Societies.
Rutgers College--Students.
Rutgers University--History--Sources.


Debates and debating--New Jersey--New Brunswick.
Oratory--New Jersey--New Brunswick.
Student life and culture--New Jersey--New Brunswick
Universities and Colleges--History--New Jersey.
Universities and Colleges--Societies--New Jersey.
Young Men--New Jersey--New Brunswick

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Detailed Description of the Records/Container List

I. Financial Affairs of the Society, 1825-1884 (4 boxes)
Arrangement: This series is arranged into three subseries: Treasurer's Reports; Bills, Vouchers and Receipts; and Prudential Committee records
Summary: Treasurer's Reports (1826-1881): These records include Treasurer's Reports presented to the Society. Bills and receipts can be found in the following subseries. These records report income from dues and fines, as well as expenditures. There exist several undated documents in this subseries. The Treasurer's Reports often appeared at the end of each semester. Many years, however, have more than two reports. Many of these reports may be informal accountings that were later copied into formal bound volumes. The bound volumes include Treasurer's Reports, account books, and fine books. The bound volumes of Treasurer's Records (which are collections of Treasurer's Reports) always indicate the name of the Treasurer at the top of the page while the loose reports are seldom authored. The account books list companies and persons to whom The Society owed money. The fine books represent fines incurred by members of The Society (for tardiness, absence, or excessively bad spelling). Each member was represented on a separate page.
Bills, Vouchers, Receipts: These bills, vouchers, and receipts record expenditures of the Society. Money was spent on books, periodicals, furnishings, oil, and wicks (replaced by gas light in 1852), ribbons, rosettes and badges, janitorial services, coal, locks and keys. These files are in loose chronological order. Many of these documents were written on scraps of paper.
Prudential Committee Records: The Prudential Committee was responsible for the disposition of funds for a variety of purposes, but mostly for payment of bills and obtaining services and supplies for the Society's hall. Separate committees were formed from time to time to procure stoves, lamps, carpets, desks, bookcases, and other items.
Box Folder
1 1-5 Treasurer's reports, 1826-1881
6 Treasurer's reports, n.d.
7-8 Treasurer's records, 1834-1847
Box Folder
2 1-22 Bills, vouchers, receipts, 1825-1846
Box Folder
3 1-8 Bills, vouchers, receipts, 1847-1884
9 Bills, vouchers, receipts, n.d.
10-11 Prudential Committee, 1832-1849
12 Prudential Committee, 1850-1864, n.d.
Box Folder
4 1-5 Treasurer's records: Members accounts, 1849-1873
Box-folder Folder
4 6-11 Treasurer's Fine Book, 1831-1862
II. Society Business, 1826-1890 (5 boxes)
Arrangement: Arranged into three subseries: Constitutions and By-laws; Miscellaneous Papers; and Minutes of the Society.
Summary: Constitutions and By-laws: This file contains many versions of the Society's constitution. It is interesting to note that these important documents are almost entirely undated. Also included are several amendments to the constitution.
The Peithessophian Society's miscellaneous papers cover the years 1826-1891. They consist primarily of various committee reports, since the Peithos, as they were called, were always appointing committees for every facet of Society business. There were three committees that reported most frequently and were of central importance to the functioning of the Society. The Committee of Supervision reported on the other committees and checked to make sure business and record keeping conformed to the rules of the Society. The Committee of Inquiry levied fines for infractions of the Society's rules and also proclaimed public censure of members whose violations were of an egregious nature. The Committee of Appeals usually handled the appeals of students who felt they had been unjustly fined or censured.
There were also Committees to Inspect the Treasurer's and Librarian's Reports, on the Junior Exhibition, on By-Laws, on Honorary Members, to Print Addresses, to Confer with Faculty, to Solicit Donations, for Commencement, to Purchase Books, on Revised Constitutions and Committees of Investigation for controversial incidents. These papers record many topics of debate from the 1850's and 1860's such as: "Were England and France justified in defending Turkey against Russia?," "Is the Union of States endangered by its extent?," "Should Kansas be admitted as a free state?," "Are republics ungrateful?," "Was ancient Rome justified in utterly destroying Carthage?," "Is France capable of republican government?," "Is the extension of territory favorable to the preservation of the Union?" [all 1856], and "Is the habitual use of tobacco for chewing and smoking injurious?," and "Working Mens' Unions" [both undated].
1826-1829: Includes initiating forms, and the violation of Librarian Westfall in the illegal removal of a book from the Society's Library in 1829.
1830-1838: Includes report on the Stimson case, report on the selling of Ogilby's Address, report on the case of Mr. Mann and report on Everett's Address. Also includes the Society's secret motto (in Greek) "Improvement and Friendship."
1839-1844: Includes reports on the printing of Everett's and Wirt's addresses, an 1840 membership catalogue of the Peithologian Society of Columbia College with its constitution, a report on the affair of W. Philips for revealing Society secrets, reports on Junior Exhibitions, and report on Cox's Address.
1845-1850: Includes the report on the case of I. P. Strong, the "Van Loon Fuss," evidence of T. B. Romeyn, report on the portrait of Dr. Cannon, the 1848 report on the New Hall [Van Nest], and report on the Muller case.
1851-1853: Includes the report on the Revision of the Constitution (1852), report on the case of A. H. Hoffman, and regarding honorary membership of faculty in the Peithessophian and Philoclean Societies -- "the said joint committee agree that all aclaims based upon precedent or traditional treaties shall hereafter be and hereby are repudiated forever: and further that each and every member of the Faculty of Rutgers College shall henceforth be ex officio a member of both societies." (December, 1853).
1854-1873: Includes reports of continuing rancor between Peitho and Philo over professorial membership despite the resolution of 1853, report on the Berdan Affair regarding revealed secrets of the Society and many topics of debate.
1874-1891: Includes report on new constitution [1878], "Peithessophian Society vs. Phillip W. Pilcher," the 1879 Tiffany design for a Society pin and general business.
Minutes of the Society: This subseries begins with a list of "Rules of Order at a Regular Meeting." This belongs properly to the by-laws, however, it is filed here to serve the user as a guide to the format of the minutes of the Society. The typical meeting began with a call to order by the President, or in His abscence another officer. This was followed by a reading from the Bible or a prayer. Minutes from the previous meeting were read and (usually) accepted. Business matters were discussed and committee reports were presented. Literary exercises normally followed. These exercises included debates, speakers, and readings. If a debate had taken place, the Society officer would decide the winner of the debate. The membership would uphold or reject the officer's ruling. The Society was then adjourned.
Box Folder
5 1-3 Constitution and bylaws, 1830-1890
4 Resolutions and decisions, 1829-1864
5 Catalogues of members, 1851
6 Honorary Membership Lists, 1825-1851
7 Rosters of Honorary Members, 1829-1861
8 Literary Ephemera "From the reader's box," n.d
9 Miscellaneous, 1830-1858
10 Miscellaneous, n.d.
Box Folder
6 1-21 Papers, 1826-1891
22-24 Papers, n.d.
Box Folder
7 1 Rules of order at a regular meeting, n.d.
2-9 Minutes, 1825-1848
Box Folder
8 1-9 Minutes, 1849-1884
10 Minutes, n.d.
Box Folder
9 1-9 Minutes (Bound volume) 1829-1890
III. Society Activities, 1828-1884 (4 boxes)
Arrangement: This series is arranged into three subseries: Correspondence, Addresses to the Society, and Papers presented to the Society.
Summary: Correspondence: This subseries contains correspondence with honorary members of the Society, with the Philoclean Society, and with others. Early correspondence also includes letters from members themselves, explaining absences, resigning positions, etc. The correspondence subseries is divided into three major categories. Correspondence folders consist of general letters. The next group of letters is Correspondence with the Philoclean Society which consists of letters, more abundant in the earlier years, between the two literary groups. Much of the communication consists of notification of honorary members selected, of joint programs planned, and occasionally concerns rivalries over members. The third group of letters is Correspondence: Honorary Members. These letters from distinguished members of the Society acknowledge the honorary membership bestowed upom them by the Society, and confirm acceptance or rejection of the honor. Many of the rejections were due to prior obligation to the Philoclean Society. Important correspondents include Millard Filmore, Henry Clay, Henry Longfellow, Alexander H. Stephens, and William C. Bryant. It is unfortunate that many of these documents were mutilated. Many of the signatures were removed.
Addresses to the Society: These addresses to the Society were the required presentation of a newly elected president. A new president was elected every three to four weeks.
Papers Presented to the Society: These papers were presented to both societies upon the occasion of commencement. They were given by prominent honorary members of the society. The two rival societies alternated rights to commencement. These addresses were often published as a way to raise funds. A complete listing of the published addresses can be found in Appendix B.
Box Folder
10 1-7 Correspondence, 1828-1875
8-12 Correspondence with Philoclean, 1820-1880
13 Bound Correspondence [see Appendix A for list of correspondents], 1844-1854
Box Folder
11 1 Correspondence: Honorary Members, 1830-1837
2 Correspondence: Henry Clay, 1827 [?]
3-5 Correspondence: Honorary Members, 1838-1854
6 Correspondence: Alexander H. Stephens, November 4, 1857
7-11 Correspondence: Honorary Members, 1855-1884
12 Correspondence: Honorary Members, n.d.
Box Folder
12 1-6 Addresses to the Society, 1832-1882
7 Addresses to the Society, n.d.
8-10 Bound Addresses [see Appendix B for list of speakers and addresses], 1829-1881
11 Registrar's Book: Exercises and Debates, 1832-1846
Box Folder
13 1-2 Honorary Members, 1825-1858
3 Constitution and Roll of Uninitiated Honorary Graduate Members, 1834-1840
4-5 Membership and record book, 1851-79
6 Registrar's Book of Members and Offices Held, 1843-1859
7 Registrar's Book, 1825-1847
IV. Librarian's Records, 1827-1886 (2 boxes)
Arrangement: This series is arrnged into two subseries: Librarian's Reports and Borrower Information.
Summary: Librarian's Reports: Reports of the committee of Library Laws (undated) are in the "by-laws" format. This document enumerates borrowing privileges, length of loans, assessment of fines, and duties of the Librarian. This includes the Librarian's Reports, 1827-1882, and the Librarian's Fine account book. Normally, these reports were presented to the Society at the end of a term. These documents report fines due to the library, new acquisitions, and various other library-related information.
Borrower Information: These documents record the borrowing habits of members of the Society.
Box Folder
14 1 Report of the Committee of the Library Laws, n.d.
2-8 Librarian's reports, 1827-1882
9 Librarian's reports, n.d.
10 Librarian's Financial Account Book (1 v.), 1846-1860
11 Librarian's Account Book: Income and expenditure accounts -- Members' accounts, 1860-1865
12-13 Library Catalogues, 1834, 1864
Box Folder
15 1-4 Librarian's circulation register, 1857-1886
V. Records of the Society, 1923-1927 (1 box)
Arrangement: topical.
Summary: In 1922, the Peithessophian Society was revived by a small group of students. In its latest incarnation, the Society had a significantly smaller membership since it had to compete with many fraternities and other student organizations on campus. The appearance and tremendous popularity of fraternities had spelled the end of the earlier society and it can be presumed that a much evidenced exclusivity and the ever-powerful pull of the fraternities led to the demise of Peithessophian's final chapter.
These records include detailed Minutes of the Society, Membership records, papers presented by members at the meetings (see Appendix C), circular letters, history and by-laws, miscellaneous clippings and correspondence. The circular letters were instituted as a means of voting on Society business without having to call formal meetings but were eventually discontinued. Correspondence consists primarily of letters from New Jersey high schools responding to a proposal of the Peithessophian Society to establish debating societies in local schools and to sponsor debating contests. It also includes letters regarding honorary membership and some "professional talks" given to the Society. There are two folders of undated material including fragments of committee reports on the revision of the constitution, a report pertaining to a robbery of the Treasury, a report on the case of S. W. Wells, and a resolution on collection development and disposition of library books. Even though the Rutgers College Library was now the main resource of students, members of the Peithessophian Society still valued and maintained their Society's distinguished library. There is also a photograph of the Society.
Box Folder
16 1 Membership records, 1923-1926
2 Minutes, 1923-1927
3 Miscellaneous, 1924-1926
4 Correspondence, 1923-1926
5 Papers presented to the Society [see Appendix C for list of speakers and papers], 1923-1924, n.d.
6 History and Bylaws, 1923, 1927
7 Circular letters, 1923, 1926
8 Society photograph, 1923

Appendix A: Index to Bound Correspondence, 1844-1854

Date Name Place
June 3, 1844 Hon. Silas Wright (U.S. Senator) Washington, D.C.
July 8, 1844 Hon. R. C. Crier, LL.D Pittsburgh, PA
July 16 1844 Hon. Charles C. Stratton Swedesboro, NJ
July 1, 1844 Hon. Ladark Pratt Battsville [?]
Feb. 7, 1844 Hon. Jas. B. Ayerigg, M.D. Paramus, N.J.
Jan. 30, 1844 Rev. William Cunningham, D.D. Philadelphia, PA
May 24, 1844 Hon. Richard S. Coxe Washington, D.C.
Nov. 8, 1844 Stacy G. Potts Trenton, N.J.
May 14, 1850 Stacy G. Potts Trenton, N.J.
Feb. 20, 1844 Thomas Cole New York, N.Y.
July 4, 1844 G. Gockman ("Political Exile") New York, N.Y.
Nov. 16, 1844 John W. Pleck Catskill, N.Y.
Oct. 29, 1844 Hon. S. Halsey Raritan Seminary, Perth Amboy, N.J.
July 25, 1844 William R. English New York, N.Y.
Nov. 27, 1844 L. Spaulding New York, N.Y.
June 29, 1844 Joshua B. Howell Union Town, [?]
July 16, 1844 David Murdoch Catskill, N.Y.
Nov. 19, 1844 B. Hoff Rhinebeck, N.Y.
June 5, 1844 Rev. Septimus Suston (Chaplain, U.S. Senate) Washington, D.C.
Nov. 12 1844 D.V. McLean Freehold, N.J.
Nov. 23, 1844 C. H. P. McLellan Pokepsie [sic] Female Academy, Poughkeepsie, N.Y.
March 30, 1844 Hiram Ketchum New York, N.Y.
August 1, 1844 Amos Dean Albany, N.Y.
Feb. 8, 1844 William C. Preston Columbia, N.Y.
March 11, 1844 J. H. Agnew (Eclectic Magazine) New York, N.Y.
Feb. 27, 1845 Hon. Millard Fillmore (signature removed) Bufflalo, N.Y.
Oct. 25, 1845 Hon. Levi Woodbury Portsmouth, N.H.
[?] Hon. Cassius M. Clay (letter removed)
July 17, 1845 Prof. Albert Dodd Princeton, N.J.
May 23, 1845 Prof. William Longfellow (signature removed) Cambridge, MA
Oct. 6, 1845 Rev. E.A., Fairchild, D.D. Flushing, N.Y.
Oct. 27, 1845 John Barnes, M.D. Poughkeepsie, N.Y.
May 22, 1845 Samuel W. Corwin Flushing, N.Y.
June 20, 1845 William R. Williams New York, N.Y.
[?] John O. Doremus (letter removed) [?]
July 30, 1845 William Slaight Monmouth, N.J.
Sept. 6, 1845 A, Mahan Cincinnati, OH
Jan. 28, 1845 C. L. Rice Princeton, N.J.
n.d. William C. Bryant [?]
Oct. 24, 1845 R.J. Mackee Washington, D.C.
[?] Hon. Reverdy Johnson, L.L.D. [?]
Oct. 27, 1846 Rev. Baynard R. Hall, D.D. Po'kepsie[ sic], N.Y.
Jan. 2, 1846 Rev. J. S. Headly (signature removed) New York, N.Y.
Feb. 26, 1846 J. A. Davenport (for Henry H. Scudder) Madras, India
July 20, 1846 Rev. William Roberts New Brunswick, N.J.
July 3, 1846 William D. Newell, M.D. Allentown, PA
July 21, 1846 E. Otis Kendall Central High School, Philadelphia, PA
June 15, 1846 F. S. Kinney New Brunswick, N.J.
Oct. 5, 1846 M. B. Hope Princeton, N.J.
July 2, 1846 A.C. Hope Princeton, N.J.
June 5, 1846 Richard Krieger Ogdensburgh, N.Y.
June 13, 1846 Hon. Elias J. Thompson New Brunswick, N.J.
Oct. 26, 1846 J. W. Craig Plainfield, N.J.
July 4, 1846 H. J. Brown Philadelphia, PA
May 27, 1846 Francis L. Russell New Brunswick, N.J.
April 7, 1846 William Russell New York, N.Y.
July 25, 1846 Jas. S. Thayer New York, N.Y.
July 30, 1846 J. Stracham Halfmoon, Saratoga County, N.Y.
Feb. 4, 1846 S. Young Albany, N.Y.
Nov. 18, 1847 Abbott Laurence (signature removed) Boston, MA
Feb. 12, 1847 William Vogdes Philadelphia, PA
Feb. 22, 1847 J. R. Varick, M.D. New York, N.Y.
July 26, 1847 Townsend Glover Byrnesville, [?]
March 8, 1847 George H. Cotton New York, N.Y.
July 28, 1847 Thomas L. Wells New York, N.Y.
July 27, 1847 John W. Thompson Pokepsie [sic], N.Y.
July 27, 1847 I. H. Weston College Hill, Pokepsie[sic], N.Y.
Nov. 20, 1847 Hamilton Fish New York, N.Y.
June 21, 1847 Samuel H. Pennington Newark, N.J.
June 8, 1847 John M. Krebs, M.D. New York, N.Y.
June 21, 1847 Wilton G. Hunt New York, N.Y.
Dec. 7, 1847 David C. English New Brunswick, N.J.
July 23, 1847 John F. Ellis Jersey City, N.J.
June 24, 1847 I. C. De Peri New Brunswick, N.J.
March 23, 1847 Cyrus D. Hawks Waterloo, Seneca City, N.Y.
Oct. 23, 1847 J. W. Miller [?]
June 19, 1847 William A. Newell Allentown, PA
Oct. 8, 1848 Charles S. Bell New Brunswick, N.J.
May 15, 1848 Clifford Morrogh New Brunswick, N.J.
Oct. 23, 1848 W. E. Robinson Tribune Office, New York, N.Y.
May 18, 1848 John R. Ford New Brunswick, N.J.
Feb. 22, 1848 J. H. Janson Goshen, N.Y.
Nov. 1, 1848 William Sumner Baston Worcester, MA
Dec. 20, 1848 Eno B. Bitts Trenton, N.J.
Nov. 10, 1848 Robert H. M. Carter Newton, N.J.
Feb. 15, 1848 L. H. Wicks Stone Ridge, [?]
Jan. 22, 1848 William Mams Philadelphia, PA
Jan. 20, 1848 Asa D. Jansen Goshen, N.Y.
Oct. 18, 1848 John Cassey Kingston, N.Y.
Oct. 7, 1848 Henry Brome New Brunswick, N.J.
July 28, 1848 Jos. R. Chandler Philadelphia, PA
May 13, 1848 Morris Franklin New York, N.Y.
Nov. 28, 1848 William Craig Raritan, N.J.
Oct. 23, 1848 W. A. Royce New Brunswick, N.J.
Oct. 16, 1848 Lieut. M. F. Maury (signature removed) Observatory, Washington, D.C.
Nov. 2, 1848 J. Hatfield Frazee New Brunswick, N.J.
March 13, 1849 J. M. Nevin Mercerberg, [?]
Oct. 23, 1849 H. W. Beecher (signature was removed) Brooklyn, N.Y.
June 25, 1849 V. Phillips Phoenix New York, N.Y.
July 9, 1849 Dr. Angle Bournonville Philadelphia, PA
Nov. 23, 1849 W. F. Van Ameringe New Brunswick, N.J.
Dec. 11, 1849 John J. Owen New York, N.Y.
Oct. 29, 1849 W. B. Taylor New York, N.Y.
May 16, 1849 Marsten D. Grefen Lebanon, N.Y.
Jan. 22, 1849 S. B. S. Bissell Greenwich, CT
July 19, 1849 Adriance Van Brunt Brooklyn, N.Y.
Jan. 7, 1849 Q. A. Dennis Holmdel, N.J.
July 24, 1849 William Vail New Market, PA
April 8, 1849 H. Bill New Brunswick, N.J.
March 2, 1849 Silas E. Weir New Brunswick, N.J.
Oct. 24, 1849 G. M. Richards Philadelphia, PA
Dec. 14, 1849 Robert S. Smith Bound Brook, N.J.
July 28, 1849 Jas. M. McIntosh U.S. Steamer Michigan, Erie, PA
Oct. 22, 1849 Baron Rouney New Brunswick, N.J.
Nov. 29, 1849 Samuel J. Wilkin Goshen, N.Y.
Nov. 29, 1849 Samuel J. Wilkin (2) Goshen, N.Y.
March 22, 1849 John Bevvidge Newburgh, N.Y.
[?] N. Phillis (signature removed [?]
May 21, 1850 Samuel H. Cox Rusmban, Brooklyn, N.Y.
May 22, 1850 Stephen N. Tying New York, N.Y.
Oct. 28, 1850 Dan Baker Philadelphia, PA
December 3, 1850 Samuel L. Southard Newark, N.J.
May 21, 1850 Jas. G. Brady (signature removed) New York, N.Y.
November 18, 1850 George F. Fort New Egypt, N.J.
Nov. 12, 1850 John Runk Kingwood, [?]
May 24, 1850 Calvin Butler New Paltrey, Ulster Co., N.Y.
May 27, 1850 S. S. Harmon Montgomery, [?]
Nov. 30, 1850 William Woodhull Freehold, N.J.
March 4, 1850 S. S. Parker Burlington, [N.J.?]
Dec. 6, 1850 E. A. Stiles Mount Retirement Seminary, N.J.
Nov. 29, 1850 Nathaniel Eddy Mount Retirement Seminary, N.J.
June 29, 1850 Garret Seveis Flemington, N.J.
Oct. 28, 1850 John Vance New York, N.Y.
Jan.16, 1850 C. Tracy New York, N.Y.
March 12, 1850 Leonard Woods Bowdoin College, ME
July 18, 1850 William Straight Colts Neck, Brunswick, ME
April 8, 1850 Henry M. Green Trenton, N.J.
Dec. 3, 1850 William J. Bogert Hackensack, N.J.
June 6, 1850 Charles S. Olden Princeton, N.J.
Feb. 11, 1850 John A. Lott Flatbush, N.Y.
Feb. 20, 1850 Samuel Boyd Tobey Providence, R.I.
June 19, 1850 Horace Mann U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C.
Oct. 31, 1850 J. Patterson (ltrs.removed) Freehold, N.J.
Feb. 22, 1851 Edmond Barry Jersey City, N.J.
May 10, 1851 Thomas R. Lee (letter removed) Croton Falls, [?]
May 27, 1851 Eppht Not Union College, N.Y.
May 19, 1851 Abraham V. Schenck New Brunswick, N.J.
May 10, 1851 George G. Waters New York, N.Y.
Jan. 27, 1851 G. W. Briggs Sehohanie, [?]
March 1, 1851 G. W. Blackpan Lebanonville, [?]
March 7, 1851 Oliver Cox Old Bridge, N.J.
Nov. 20, 1851 Caspar Morris [?]
July 22, 1851 W. H. Bigelow Lebanonville, [?]
July 8, 1851 Alonzo Potter Easton, PA
Oct. 6, 1851 E. F. Stewart Philadelphia, PA
Oct. 2, 1851 E. R. McGregor Newhock, [?]
Nov. 10, 1851 A. O. Labriskie Jersey City, N.J.
Nov. 10, 1851 Addison Sanford Livingston, [?]
July 10, 1851 Rheuben H. Woolworth Saratoga Springs, N.Y.
Feb. 11, 1852 Hon. George E. Appleton Harrisburg, PA
Dec. 11, 1852 Vincent L. Bradford Philadelphia, PA
n.d. Hon. James Buchanan, Minister to England (letters removed) Lancaster, PA
Jan. 23, 1852 Rev. S. D. Buchard New York, N.Y.
June 14, 1852; Nov.15, 1853 Hon. Daniel S. Dickerson Binghampton, N.Y.
Oct. 22, 1852 Charles Essylstyn Livingston, [?]
Dec. 21, 1852 Rev. Brainerd R. Hall Brooklyn, N.Y.
Feb. 13, 1852 Rev. John M. Macauley (signature removed) New York, N.Y.
March 9, 1852 Donald G. Mitchell Norwich, CT
Jan. 20, 1852 Asa Whitehead, Esq. Newark, N.J.
March 20, 1852 Hon. J. P. Kennedy Baltimore, MD
Feb. 5, 1853 Silas F. Bowen, Principal State Normal School, Albany, N.Y.
Dec. 25, 1853 J. T. Clark Principal, New Brunswick Normal School, N.J.
Feb. 9, 1853 L. Gaylord Clark Editor, Knickerbocker, New York, N.Y.
July 12, 1853 R. W. Cooke M.D. Holmdel, N.J.
Dec. 6, 1853 Hon. Erastus Corning Albany, N.Y.
n.d. Hon. Caleb Cushing (letter was removed) Washington, D.C.
May 17, 1853 Jas. W. Draper, M.D. N.Y.U., New York, N.Y.
Nov. 23, 1853 J. Laurence Marcellus Williamsburgh, [?]
July 25, 1853 Hon. Rodman Price (Gov-elect of NJ) Somerville, N.J.
Oct. 30, 1853 Edward F. Stewart, Esq. Easton, PA
Dec. 6, 1853 Hon. Charles H. Winfield Goshen, N.Y.
Oct. 11, 1853 George H. Cook Albany Academy, N.Y.
Dec. 15, 1854 Howard Crosby (Prof. at N.Y.U.) New York, N.Y.
March 27, 1854 Hon. Francis B. Cutting New York, N.Y.
Feb. 22, 1854 William Gilbert, Esq. New Brunswick, N.J.
Jan. 31, 1854 Traill Green, M.D. Easton, PA
Feb. 3, 1854 Hon. Alfred Ivenson Columbus, GA
Feb. 22, 1854 B. Livinston Kip New York, N.Y.
May 18, 1854 Hon. Caleb Lyon Lyonsdale, N.Y.
Dec. 12, 1854 Rev. H. H. Rowland, D.D. Honesdale, PA
Jan. 10, 17, 1854 Hon. Henry Vethake, L.L.D.(Provost, U. of Penn.) Philadelphia, PA
June 10, 1854 Rev. Charles Wadsworth Philadelphia, PA

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Appendix B: Addresses before the Peithessophian and Philoclean Societies, 1829-1881

Date Name Title
1829 John Sergeant
1830 William Wirt
1838 William Wirt
1852 William Wirt
1831 Theodore Frelinghuysen
1833 John D. Ogilby
1835 David P. Brown
1837 Daniel P. Barnard
1838 Alexander H. Everett, On the Literary Character of the Scriptures.
1840 Hon. Robert Strange
1844 Robert S. Coxe
1847 Theodore Romeyn, Our Country and Her Claims.
1848 John Forsyth, Jr.
1849 Joseph Bradley, Progress--Its Grounds and Possibilities.
1850 Stacy G. Potts
1851 George W. Brown, The Old World and the New.
1853 Frederick T. Frelinghuysen
1854 Henry Vethake
1857 Charles Murray Narine
1859 Theodore W. Dwight
1880 Flavel McGee, The American Republic, and Our Duties and Responsibilities as Citizens Thereof.
1881 Rev. J. E. Price, A Forgotten Here; or The Transmutation of Truth into Human Life.

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Appendix C: Addresses Before the Peithessophian Society, 1923-1924, n.d.

Date Name Title
1923 Farland W. Updike, The Present Rembrandt Complex.
1924 Sydney L. Spear, The Origin and Development of Piracy.
1924 Frank A. Malsbury, Chartism.
1924 Douglas W. Smith, The Pending Child Labor Amendment.
1924 Julius Demeter, The Nitrogen Lamp.
1924 Alvie H. Schaediger, Leif Ericson, the Discoverer of America.
1924 J.K. Allen, The Water Competition.
n.d. George Faltings, Untitled
n.d. Ensley Clayton, Lessening of the Pines Smoke.
n.d. Bruce Hunt, The Awakening of a Nation.
n.d. J. Kenneth Kimble, Interfraternity Rushing Season.
n.d. S. Gaeta, Life of Daniel Webster (by Henry Cabot Lodge).
n.d Carroll A. Badeau, In Man We Trust.
n.d. W. C. Heyer, The New Jersey Mosquito.
n.d. J. S. Neary, Ore Welding with Metallic Electrodes.
n.d. Herbert D. Trowbridge, Freneau--His Influence on the Revolution (Presentation Speech).
n.d. Orin E. Carpenter, Cooperative Egg and Poultry Marketing Associations and How They Function.
n.d. E. J. Ashman, Bridge Engineering.
n.d. John Wood, The Chemistry of Foods.
n.d. Geo. T. Morse, Ceramics of the Ancients.

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