MC 2

Inventory to the Papers of Harrison A. Williams, Jr.

Introduction

By Soo Jung Lee, Larry Weimer, John Zarrillo

Initial Release: January 2008; Updated: February 2009

Special Collections and University Archives, Rutgers University Libraries

Finding aid is encoded in EAD, version 2002 by Soo Jung Lee, with technical assistance from Caryn Radick. January 2008

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Williams, Harrison A.
Title: Harrison A. Williams, Jr. Papers (01): Introduction
Dates: 1862-2001 (bulk 1953-1982)
Quantity: 959 cubic feet (953 boxes of various sizes)
Abstract: Harrison A. Williams, Jr. (1919 - 2001) represented New Jersey in the U.S. Senate from 1959 until 1982. He also served in the House of Representatives from 1953 through 1956. A member of the Democratic Party, Williams held leadership positions on the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, the Special Committee on Aging, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, and the Select Committee on Small Business, among others. The Williams papers consist of legislative working files and reference material, correspondence, project and case files, campaign files, photographs, press releases, speeches, memorabilia, audio and visual recordings, and more. Major themes in the papers include the involvement of the Federal government in managing the natural and built environment of the United States (e.g., housing, mass transit, land and wildlife conservation, energy); the search for civil rights, economic equity and security, and the expansion of educational opportunities and initiatives; national tensions over economic and social costs (e.g., expanded entitlement programs vs. taxation, crime and assassinations vs. gun control); business concerns on trade, contractual, and regulatory matters; and Americans' responses to foreign affairs, particularly with regard to the Vietnam War, the Middle East, and the Panama Canal Treaty.
Collection No.: MC 2
Repository: Rutgers University. Special Collections and University Archives.

Links to Other Sections of Finding Aid

Harrison A. Williams, Jr. Papers has been separated into twelve online files. The finding aid is divided into the Introduction; Case Files-Part 1-2; Special Projects Files; Correspondence-Part 1-3; Legislation; Subjects; Public Relations; Photographs, Miscellaneous Formats and Other Sub-Groups and Appendices. This section is Introduction. Click on one of the links below to go to another section.

Introduction

Case Files-Part 1

Case Files-Part 2

Special Projects Files

Correspondence-Part 1

Correspondence-Part 2

Correspondence-Part 3

Legislation

Subjects

Includes campaign, Abscam, legislative and various subject reference files

Public Relations

Photographs, Miscellaneous Formats and Other Sub-Groups

Appendices

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Biographical Sketch of Harrison A. Williams, Jr.

Harrison Arlington Williams, Jr. (1919 - 2001) represented New Jersey in the U.S. Senate from 1959 until 1982. He also served in the House of Representatives as Congressman from New Jersey's Sixth Congressional District (Union County) from 1953 through 1956. Known since infancy by the nickname "Pete," Williams was a member of the Democratic Party during a period when Democrats held a majority in the Senate. Consequently, until a Republican majority took office in 1981 toward the end of his career, Williams held the Chairmanships of a number of committees and subcommittees over the years. Further, Williams played important roles as a leader within the Democratic Party, notably as a member of the Democratic Senate Steering Committee, the group responsible for committee assignments.

Williams was born in Plainfield, NJ, on December 10, 1919, son of Harrison A. Williams, Sr. and Isabel Lamson Williams. He attended the Plainfield public schools, then studied economics and political science at Oberlin College, graduating in 1941. After a short stint as a reporter with the Washington Post and beginning graduate work at Georgetown University Foreign Service School, Williams, a Naval reservist, was called to active duty when the U.S. entered WWII. He served on a minesweeper for a year and as a Navy pilot for three years. After his discharge, Williams worked in an Ohio steel mill for a year before attending Columbia University Law School, from which he graduated in 1948. Williams practiced law in New Hampshire for one year before returning to New Jersey to join the firm of Cox and Walburg in Newark and, in the early 1950s, the Elizabeth firm that became Pollis and Williams.

Williams began his political career with unsuccessful runs for the New Jersey Assembly in 1951 and for Plainfield city councilman in 1952. His first victory came against George F. Hetfield in a special election held on November 3, 1953, to fill the Sixth Congressional District vacancy that opened when Clifford Case resigned his seat in the House of Representatives. Williams was re-elected to the House in 1954, defeating Fred Shepard, but lost in 1956 to Florence P. Dwyer. Remaining active in politics, Williams played a leading role in Robert Meyner's 1957 successful gubernatorial bid, earning Meyner's support for Williams's successful 1958 Senate campaign. Williams would win four consecutive Senate races—unprecedented for a Democrat in New Jersey—defeating Robert W. Kean (1958), Bernard M. Shanley (1964), Nelson Gross (1970), and David A. Norcross (1976).

In his short House tenure, Williams was involved principally with oversight of American overseas diplomatic operations. He served on the Committee of Foreign Affairs' Subcommittee on Inter-American Affairs and on the Committee on Government Operations' Subcommittee on International Operations. As a member of these subcommittees, Williams traveled to Europe and to Central America.

Throughout his Senate career, Williams was a member of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. (This was the name of the Committee beginning in 1978.The Committee was called the Committee on Human Resources in 1977 and, prior to 1977, the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.) One of Williams's first achievements as a Senator was gaining the approval in 1959 of then-Chairman Lister Hill to create a Subcommittee on Migratory Labor, which HAW chaired until 1968. Williams was successful at publicizing the poor living and working conditions of agricultural laborers and their families, leading to legislative advances, especially for the improvement of migrant health (1962) and education (1964). Williams's concern with working conditions led to at least two other major legislative initiatives in the 1960s: the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA). Connecting his interest in labor with his longtime advocacy of civil rights, Williams sponsored the Equal Employment Opportunity Act Amendments of 1972, which provided the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission with the enforcement powers to pursue discrimination cases.

Ascending to the Chairmanship of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources for the entire decade of the 1970s, Williams continued at the forefront of legislative reforms in the areas of occupational safety, pension protection, access to education, equal employment opportunity, women's rights, health initiatives, minimum wage, and much more. The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, the Federal Mine Safety and Health Amendments Act of 1977, and the Home Energy Assistance Act (1980) are just a few of the significant pieces of legislation sponsored by Chairman Williams and reported by his Committee. Himself a victim of alcoholism, as he informed the public in 1970, Williams was also a supporter of legislation aimed at the prevention and treatment of drug and alcohol abuse; his initiative created the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Narcotics in 1971 to focus on the issue.

Williams also spent his entire Senate career on the Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs (known as the Committee on Banking and Currency before 1971). As Chairman of the Securities Subcommittee throughout the 1960s and most of the 1970s, Williams sought to increase the regulatory oversight of the Securities and Exchange Commission, to improve disclosure in securities offerings and in corporate takeover attempts, to enforce equitable lending practices, and to implement other market reforms. The reporting requirements of the so-called Williams Act of 1968 remain important features of equity market regulation. As a member of the Select Committee on Small Business for over a decade, Williams sought ways to strengthen the effectiveness of the Small Business Administration, and much of his constituent project work centered on connecting small firms with SBA opportunities. Williams's appreciation of commercial interests—including those of New Jersey's agricultural, pharmaceutical, and other industries—often involved Williams in matters of royalty and patent protection, import/export restrictions, and other matters of importance to business.

Additionally, Williams's place on the Banking Committee and his interest in housing was part of a broader vision of a Federal role in managing the natural and built environment of the U.S., particularly with respect to urban centers and their greater metropolitan areas. Mass transportation was an essential part of Williams's vision. Beginning with his Mass Transportation Act of 1961 and continuing throughout his career, Williams sponsored legislation aimed at reducing traffic congestion and air pollution, while increasing the availability and efficiency of commuting options. Similarly, Williams sought to protect open space (or at least find a well-planned balance between conservation and development) within these metropolitan areas, leading him to pursue conservation initiatives at Sandy Hook, the Delaware Water Gap, the Great Swamp, and other New Jersey areas. Williams's legislation designating the Pinelands a "national reserve" was an innovative approach to finding a means of achieving this conservation/development balance where competing interests where at stake. Williams's legislative efforts to regulate ocean dumping, to eliminate inhumane animal trapping, to preserve endangered species, to identify alternative energy sources, and so forth linked into his efforts to create a sustainable economy and a pleasurable, socially-responsible way of life.

Williams's overall efforts on the housing front dovetailed with his participation on the Special Committee on Aging. Here, Williams was principally concerned with housing and health care (including his Preventicare program) for senior citizens. Additionally, Williams was concerned about the extent to which the elderly were often victims of fraud. For example, he pressed for legislation over several Congresses to regulate the disclosures required for interstate land sales, culminating in the passage of such a law in 1968.

Despite the domestic orientation of Williams's Committee assignments, foreign affairs—including the Vietnam War and the Cold War—were issues that he retained interest in. In the 1950s, Williams was an ardent anti-Communist. Nevertheless, while he recognized the importance of military defense, he perceived the United State's confrontation with the Soviet Union as principally one of ideology, which could be won by building allies through diplomacy, cultural engagement, and economic development. As a Congressman, his committee assignments involved him in foreign operations administration, and through this work Williams pressed for enhancements in foreign aid, trade activities, and support for foreign service personnel. By the 1960s, Williams's view of the Cold War translated into his initial support for the Vietnam War, though he eventually came to oppose it, supporting or sponsoring various legislative efforts pressing for a resolution. Williams was also a strong supporter of Israel, at least in part because of his perception of that country as a democratic ally and bulwark against Communist influence in the Middle East. Williams's sponsored legislation included efforts to break the Arab embargo on companies doing business with Israel.

With an appreciation for intellectual activity as a national resource, Williams pursued funding for a wide range of initiatives in the sciences, arts, and humanities. He lent his name to a number of institutions; at various times he was, for example, a director for the New York Lyric Ensemble, a member of the Steering Committee of the National Academy of Sciences, and a trustee of the John F. Kennedy Performing Arts Center. Perhaps most notable in this connection was Williams's sponsorship of legislation in the early 1960s forming a Woodrow Wilson Memorial Commission with the objective of creating an appropriate memorial to the former President. Williams's involvement as a leader of the Commission led to the founding of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in 1971.

Williams's career began to close in February 1980 when the press reported that he was a target of a FBI undercover operation, known as Abscam. The Abscam operation had snared several businessmen and politicians, but Williams was the most prominent and highest-ranking official involved. In October 1980, a nine count indictment against Williams was announced which included bribery, receipt of an unlawful gratuity, conflict of interest, and conspiracy to defraud the United States, among other charges. Williams's trial started on March 30, 1981 and, on May 9, Williams was found guilty on all counts. The Senate Committee on Ethics then opened its own hearings into the matter, which led to a recommendation in September 1981 that Williams be expelled from the Senate. As the Senate neared the end of its deliberations on this recommendation, Williams resigned in March 1982. Though continuing to pursue various avenues for fighting the charges in court, Williams was sentenced, and he entered the penitentiary at Allenwood, Pa. in January 1984. Throughout the ordeal, Williams argued that he was innocent and that the FBI had abused its power. Williams's contentions were important ones that resulted in fierce debate in the news media and in Congress where hearings were held on the FBI's investigative tactics.

After his release from prison in 1986, Williams returned home to retirement in Bedminster, NJ, where he had lived since 1974 with his wife, Jeanette. Williams died of heart disease on November 17, 2001.

(An overview of Williams's committee and subcommittee assignments is included as Appendix D. A list of personnel from HAW's Senate office is included as Appendix E. Below is a link to a more comprehensive biographical sketch of Harrison Williams' Senate career, written by Anthony Manganaro, a Rutgers University public history intern, in December 2007.)

Harrison Williams Senate Career Biographical Sketch

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Scope and Content Note

The Harrison A. Williams, Jr. papers (HAW papers) comprise 959 cubic feet of material.

The collection is organized into two sub-groups: Harrison A. Williams, Jr. and Williams Family. The Harrison A Williams, Jr. sub-group comprises by far the bulk of the collection and is further discussed below. The Williams Family sub-group consists of 2 cubic feet of material, from HAW's mother, father, and other ancestral family members, dating primarily 1909-1979. The family sub-group also includes an 1862 letter from a Civil War soldier. Generally, these family papers were acquired by HAW upon the death of HAW's mother.

The HAW papers hold a wide variety of documentation types including, correspondence, project proposals, internal office notes, working files, legislative bills, Committee Reports, campaign material, press releases, speeches, Senate floor remarks, published or otherwise printed material, photographs, awards, memorabilia, microfilm, audio and video recordings.

The HAW papers have a number of strengths for research use. The collection documents:

the activities of HAW and his office and Committee staffs on legislative initiatives, regulatory oversight, and constituent service;
the concerns of individuals from across the nation in the areas of pension benefits, employment discrimination, union organizing, and other labor-oriented matters;
New Jersey constituent perspectives on international, national, regional, state, and local issues;
HAW's positions on US foreign and domestic matters, the influences on his positions, and the various means by which HAW articulated his positions to constituents, other legislators, and industry representatives or other interested parties;
local initiatives of municipalities, companies, community organizations, universities, and other institutions (principally from New Jersey) seeking government funding for projects; and
the analyses, tactics, finances, public statements, and other materials related to HAW's House and Senate campaigns, as well as HAW's efforts on behalf of Robert Meyner in the 1957 gubernatorial race; and
a multi-faceted perspective of the Abscam affair, HAW's final days in the Senate, and his prison term.

The bulk of the collection dates from 1953-1982, encompassing HAW's years in the House of Representatives and, especially, the Senate. A number of themes are well represented in the collection, including:

the involvement of the Federal government in managing the natural and built resources of the United States through programs impacting mass transit, public works, energy, land conservation, urban renewal, housing, and others;
the search for social justice, economic equity, and the development of America's human resources through civil rights legislation, protection of workers' rights and benefits, the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid, community development projects, the expansion of educational opportunities and training programs, and the like;
the attempts of individual citizens to comprehend the meaning of the Vietnam War, its impact on American society, and the war's aftermath;
tensions over economic and social costs, as reflected in concerns over cutbacks or limits on compensation for Federal employees or benefit payments under Social Security and other government programs, the level of taxation, the high cost of living, drug and alcohol addiction, persistent urban poverty, and crime;
concerns of business-including the pharmaceutical, textile, steel, telecommunications, trucking, agricultural, and other industries-with foreign competition, export/import restrictions, government contracts, regulation, deregulation, and other commercial matters;
Americans' interpretation of US geopolitics, particularly through a Cold War viewpoint, in relation to support for Israel, arms sales to Middle Eastern nations, Soviet dissidents, foreign aid generally, world hunger, the Panama Canal Treaty, and other international matters.

The Harrison A. Williams, Jr. sub-group comprises the bulk of the collection and is organized into the following series:

CASE FILES, WASHINGTON OFFICE and SPECIAL PROJECTS FILES include correspondence and other materials related to the work HAW and his Washington office performed on behalf of constituents seeking benefits, grants, contracts, jobs, services, visas, loans, rulings, and other favorable considerations from Federal and state departments and agencies. CASE FILES, WASHINGTON OFFICE principally pertains to individual constituent matters; SPECIAL PROJECTS FILES principally relates to matters raised by companies, non-profit organizations, universities, municipalities, school districts, and other institutions.

CASE FILES, NEWARK OFFICE includes casework handled by HAW's Newark, NJ office. (No casework from Toms River or HAW's other New Jersey offices are in the collection.) CASE FILES, COMMITTEE ON LABOR & HUMAN RESOURCES includes casework concerning issues that fell within the scope of HAW's Committee assignment and were referred (or "bucked") by HAW's office to his Committee staff for resolution.

Correspondence can be found in most series in the collection, regardless of the primary content of the files. Nevertheless, the bulk of correspondence received by HAW, especially that from constituents, was retained by his office staff in centralized correspondence files. Over the course of HAW's twenty-three years in the Senate, a variety of filing structures were used for correspondence, and the correspondence series are organized accordingly. The correspondence series consist principally of letters written to HAW by individual New Jersey constituents, with a carbon copy or other form of response from HAW attached. Correspondents also include US Presidents, other legislators, committee staff members, department and agency officials, and representatives of companies, unions, industry associations, and other institutional interests. The correspondence series also include carbon copies (with little or no other attached documents) of HAW-initiated letters to editors, Presidents, other Senators, government officials, etc. The correspondence series include:

SUBJECT CORRESPONDENCE (1959) reflects a short-lived filing system and includes issue-related constituent correspondence.

DEPARTMENTAL CORRESPONDENCE (1959-1965; 1972-1977) includes constituent correspondence on regulatory issues and government programs referred to departments and agencies by HAW's office for review and comment. Particularly in the 1960s, HAW's office was not consistent in distinguishing issue-oriented departmental correspondence from casework and projects involving departments, so these materials can be found to some extent in DEPARTMENTAL CORRESPONDENCE as well.

LEGISLATIVE / ISSUE CORRESPONDENCE (1959-1982) includes correspondence regarding specific pending or proposed legislation (e.g., Civil Rights Act of 1964) or general public policy matters (e.g., Vietnam War).

GENERAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, & PUBLIC RELATIONS CORRESPONDENCE (1959-1981) includes the wide range of topics that did not fit into departmental or legislative correspondence, from routine requests or congratulatory notes to substantive correspondence on political affairs and New Jersey state issues.

CENTRAL CORRESPONDENCE reflects the principal correspondence filing system in place from 1965 to early 1972 and includes departmental, legislative, and general correspondence.

LAUDATORY CORRESPONDENCE principally includes expressions of support or gratitude to HAW for his positions on legislation, his assistance on matters concerning grants, contracts, and other project or case-like matters, and the like. The correspondence is often substantive and some files include noteworthy matters, such as correspondence from presidents and foreign leaders.

MISCELLANEOUS CORRESPONDENCE includes material dating principally circa 1980 concerning legislative matters that were not filed with the main correspondence files.

CMS ENCYCLOPEDIA includes the text of HAW's outgoing correspondence generated by the Correspondence Management System (CMS) from 1977-1982.

OUTGOING CORRESPONDENCE includes carbon copies of HAW's correspondence to notable individuals, including presidents, cabinet officers, and other senators.

HISTORY OF THE COMMITTEE ON LABOR & HUMAN RESOURCES includes HAW's copy of author and Committee staff member Thomas A. Lindsley's 1980 draft of the Committee history that would be published in 1981, along with some related documents. COMMITTEE RECORDS includes photocopies and original duplicates of staff memoranda and other documents that were in the collection but were returned to the Senate in 2006 because they were determined to be records of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources and the Committee on Banking and Currency.

LEGISLATION FILES principally pertains to bills, including private bills, introduced or co-sponsored by HAW during his years in the Senate. In addition to printed bills, the files often include draft bills, correspondence from other legislators, remarks, reference material, and/or staff notes. The series also contains HAW co-signed letters and correspondence to HAW from other Senators ("Dear Colleague letters") regarding bills which HAW chose not to co-sponsor. BRIEFING MATERIALS includes documents used by HAW as preparation for hearings, meetings, and on other occasions. VOTING HISTORY & LEGISLATIVE ACTIVITY REPORTS includes records of HAW's votes on legislation and bills he introduced or co-sponsored. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OFFICE FILES includes bills, subject files, correspondence, and press releases dating from HAW's years in the House.

NATIONAL INFORMATION FILES consists mostly of reference material on a wide range of subject areas, many of which had direct relevance to HAW's legislative or project initiatives. NEW JERSEY INFORMATION FILES also hold reference material with a focus on New Jersey matters. LEGISLATIVE REFERENCE FILES appear to be the central reference files for HAW's legislative assistants of the early 1960s. Similarly, SUBJECT FILES includes legislative assistant, administrative assistant, and press office background files. Although the bulk of these reference files include printed matter (i.e., government reports, trade publications, industry newsletters, etc.), many of the files also include substantive correspondence, draft bills, and other unique material.

CAMPAIGN FILES includes materials relating principally to HAW's bids for election and re-election to the House and Senate, and includes the subject files maintained by assistant Robert Barrie in preparation for HAW's first Senate race in 1958. CAMPAIGN FILES also includes HAW's files from his leadership position in Robert Meyner's 1957 gubernatorial race.

ABSCAM includes correspondence, clippings, legal filings, transcripts, and other material related to HAW's indictment, trial, appeals, conviction, and imprisonment stemming from the FBI's Abscam operation; the Senate investigation into HAW's conduct and the resulting expulsion proceedings; and the Senate and House's inquiries into the FBI's undercover investigative tactics.

APPOINTMENT BOOKS includes HAW's schedules from 1968-1981, with the important exception of 1979. OFFICE ADMINISTRATION includes a small amount of schedules, mail counts, office procedures, telephone logs, and other administrative records. The series also includes a small number of staff notes on substantive matters.

PRESS RELEASES & NEWSLETTERS includes press releases and the constituent newsletter, "Report Home," issued by HAW's office. The series also includes some press releases issued by HAW's committees, subcommittees, and campaigns, along with other publicity material. REPORT HOME SURVEY RESPONSES are the responses from constituents to a 1968 survey conducted by HAW. MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICITY FILES include some transcripts of HAW's TV and radio broadcasts and distribution copies of materials related to key HAW initiatives from the early 1960s. Many of the transcripts date from 1963 and include the Edison disc with the original recording.

SPEECHES includes remarks made by HAW on the Senate floor, at commencement exercises, in testimony at hearings, to industry associations and other interest groups, and the like. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SPEECH & BILL FILES includes indexes of HAW appearances in the Congressional Record, tearsheets of remarks from the Record, press releases, and other records of HAW remarks. CLIPPINGS includes a limited number of clippings related to HAW's activities retained from the original collection.

PHOTOGRAPHS includes photos documenting HAW's career, campaign activities, and personal life. There are photos of many celebrities, other senators, presidents, and other dignitaries. There are many photos documenting the working and living conditions of migratory labor. AUDIOVISUAL MATERIAL includes film, video, reel-to-reel tapes, audiotape cassettes, and phonograph records. A limited number of these items have had digital access copies made. MICROFILM includes images made by HAW's office of clippings, speeches, press releases, and other material. MICROFILM also includes computer-output microfilm generated by the Correspondence Management System, which holds index information about the correspondence answered via CMS.

BOOKS includes books accepted into the collection. Various series include materials acknowledging HAW's life and career accomplishments, were presented as gifts, or have other connections to HAW's career, including MEMORABILIA, RESOLUTIONS, HONORARY DEGREES, CERTIFICATES, EDITORIAL CARTOONS, POSTERS,ARTWORK, and PLAQUES.

BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIAL includes material prepared by HAW's staff of a biographical nature, with a focus on HAW's legislative accomplishments. MISCELLANEOUS PERSONAL MATERIAL includes documents related to HAW's role on advisory councils and other such boards outside the legislative arena, as well as correspondence and other material on personal matters.

The Williams Family sub-group amounts to 2 cubic feet and is organized into the following series:

SCRAPBOOKS include photocopies of clippings from 1953-1965 originally collected by HAW's mother and is primarily centered on HAW's political career. CORRESPONDENCE includes various items of Williams family correspondence. It includes an 1862 Civil War soldier letter with its original envelope and a letter from Senator John F. Kennedy to an uncle of HAW. MISCELLANEOUS includes clippings, ephemera, campaign material, and other matter. Much of this material relates to HAW. Some documentation of HAW's youth, including his high school years and a grade school report card, are included in the series. LEDGERS are a set of financial records maintained by HAW's father.

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Arrangement Note

The following is a description of the general approaches to arrangement taken during processing. The series descriptions provide information on arrangement as it specifically pertains at that level.

Substantial portions of the files were kept in their original order and the rest could be readily reconstructed. Generally, this original order is reflected in the organization of series and sub-series, and often in the arrangement within a series or sub-series. Nevertheless, rearrangement was commonly implemented because of anticipated research use, appraisal decisions, consolidation of like material into fewer folders, or other considerations.

Folder descriptions applied during processing generally reflect those from the labels of the original folders. Nevertheless, there are several exceptions to this practice. Most are mundane changes, such as replacing inconsistent department acronyms with consistent ones. Substantive alterations to original folder labels are described in the series descriptions. Generally, alterations at the individual folder level are not marked in any way. However, for certain series, including ABSCAM FILES and SUBJECT FILES folder descriptions imposed or modified by the archivist during processing are enclosed in brackets; again, the series descriptions will indicate when this treatment was applied.

Portions of the processed collection were retained in the original folders. In these instances, any notations made on the original label by the processing archivist are enclosed in brackets. Also in the case of original folders, the original labels were stapled in place by the archivist.

The folder-level date range used in the container list is not necessarily reflective of all documents in a given folder because of the impracticality of looking at every individual document during processing. The source of the date range varies by series, and is described in the series description. Folders that appear in the container list with no date range are those that could not be dated following the general rule for the series and contained undated documents.

The date range used at the series, sub-series, and folder level does not necessarily indicate that there are documents present from every year within the range. There are often gaps that were impractical to document in detail. Nevertheless, to the extent there are large gaps in the date range of a series or sub-series, the archivist did attempt to identify them. Similarly, little attempt was made to identify bulk dates, except in the clearest instances.

The folder level description in the container list may include up to six index terms assigned by the processing archivists. The general purpose of the index terms is to identify substantive folder content in cases where the folder label is insufficient. The index terms do not indicate the only content in the folders. Specific indexing strategies were employed by the archivists for some series and sub-series. When used, these strategies are described within the series descriptions.

Unordered material or material on a specific topic found in various isolated folders were consolidated and placed within an appropriate series or folder of like material. Generally, this was done without annotation, though notation was made with the material or in the series description when such placement seemed substantive.

A great deal of material in the files was obviously misfiled, likely misfiled, or, because of the indistinct lines within the filing systems, filed inconsistently under multiple headings. Generally, this material was left in place with descriptive techniques, including series description and index terms, used to identify significant occurrences. Nevertheless, some obvious misfilings were silently corrected during processing when the correct location was obvious and it seemed unlikely that a researcher would find the material if left in its incorrect location.

Most series were foldered in letter-size (8-1/2" x 11") folders. In these instances, any thick legal-size documents in the series required separation; these documents, along with any associated documents, were placed in legal-size folders in separate boxes designated for these materials. A placeholder folder, which includes the folder description and the notation "see legal size box," marks the separation point in the container and container list. Series that use separate legal-size boxes for material indicate this in the arrangement note of the series description along with the box numbers. The boxes of legal-size material are found at the end of the container lists for each pertinent series or sub-series.

For reasons related to the logistics of processing a large collection and the efficient use of storage space, the box numbers assigned to series do not follow the same sequence as the order in which the series appear in the Inventory.

Printed materials, such as government publications, annual statements, product brochures, and the like, were generally removed without notation from the collection wherever there was little or no context for the material. For example, an unsolicited boilerplate transmittal of a company annual report to HAW found in the correspondence files was insufficient context to retain the report; however, the same annual report would have been retained if it was in a project file related to a company proposal. Removed material was transferred to a Special Collections and University Archives' bibliographer for disposition.

Loose newsprint clippings were discarded unless they were from obscure sources or seemed essential for providing context to other material in the folder. Clippings and other transmitted material attached to correspondence was generally left in the collection, unless it presented severe preservation threats to other material in the folder.

Preservation photocopying was done for some material in the collection, including Thermofax copies, some newsprint, binder covers, and water or otherwise-damaged paper documents. The source material was then discarded. In these instances, when significant reformatting was done (e.g., original damaged correspondence replaced with a photocopy), the fact of the replacement was indicated in some way, such as by a notation on the back of the copy or, if widespread copying was done within a series, by reference in the series description. Certain standard procedures, including replacing Thermofax copies and keeping only a photocopy of a binder cover with the material pulled from the binder, were performed, usually without item level notation.

Redundant pressure mail received in bulk was discarded; representative samples were retained with a note in the folder describing the extent of the discards and any apparent common attributes linking the correspondents (i.e., same town, institutional affiliation, etc.).

Paper clips, binder clips, and binders or report covers with metal fasteners were removed, with the material placed together in a paper sleeve or with a plastic clip. Staples were removed only where they prevented documents from opening, had exposed points, were rusted, or otherwise adversely impacted the use and preservation of the documents.

From time to time, after a series or sub-series was processed, additional material was found elsewhere in the collection. When not practical to be inserted into its appropriate place in the arrangement, the found material was placed at the end of the pertinent series or sub-series. This was indicated in the arrangement note.

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Administrative Information

Acquisition and Appraisal Note

The Harrison A. Williams, Jr. papers came to Rutgers University in six accruals (as of December 2008). First, Rutgers collected approximately 800 cubic feet of material from the Washington, DC office of Senator Williams (HAW) in March 1982, immediately after his resignation. Second, also in 1982, Rutgers received all of HAW's papers held at the Federal Records Center in Suitland, Maryland-approximately 2500 cubic feet of material. Third, HAW delivered 15 cubic feet of material in 1990. Fourth, Jeanette Williams donated 25 cubic feet in February 2006. Fifth, Jeanette Williams donated another 8 cubic feet of material in February 2007. The sixth accrual amounting to approximately 11 cubic feet was received from Jeanette Williams in October/November 2008. Further accruals of material are expected to be donated by Jeanette Williams. Until 2005, the materials were held in custody for HAW and, after his death in 2001, for Jeanette Williams. In December 2005, Jeanette Williams signed a deed of gift, donating the entire collection to Rutgers University.

Shortly after material was received at Rutgers in 1982, a high level appraisal was performed by the staff of Special Collections and University Archives. Routine office administration files, rejected academy candidate files, many case files, routine requests (for American flags, tours of the White House, etc.), Congressional Records, and similar materials with low archival value were discarded. This appraisal reduced the size of the material taken from HAW's office to about 511 cubic feet and the material from the Records Center to approximately 1499 cubic feet. With the 40 cubic feet received in 1990 and 2006, the total collection size was approximately 2050 cubic feet at the start of the processing project begun in 2006.

During the course of processing in 2006-2008, much additional material was discarded as well as condensed with more efficient use of folder and container space. Also, a substantial volume of Committee records were found in the collection, and these were returned to the Senate. Together, these actions, netted against the 2007 and 2008 accruals received from Jeanette Williams, reduced the size of the collection to 959 cubic feet as of February 2009. Further information on material discarded during processing can be found in the Series Descriptions below.

An Additional Description Tool/Finding Aid

During processing, a Microsoft Access database (version 2000) was used to document both the processed and original, unprocessed HAW collection. The most crucial element of the database is the container list data, which was the source of the container lists that appear in this Inventory. Therefore, it is expected that this Inventory will meet the needs of most researchers without reference to the Access database. Nevertheless, the database does include some secondary information about folder content not found in this Inventory. Perhaps more usefully, those researchers familiar with Access can take advantage of the software's search filters and sort capabilities to navigate the extensive container list. (Researchers are advised to not use case-sensitive searches.) The Access database can be obtained at the reference desk in Special Collections and University Archives (SC/UA). However, to use the database researchers will need to copy it from a flash drive onto their own computer via a USB port and run the application with their own copy of Access software. SC/UA will oversee the transfer of the database to the researcher's computer, but will not provide technical support. Researchers are advised to contact the reference desk in advance of their arrival date if they intend to request a copy of the database.

In addition to the information found in the container lists in this Inventory, the Access database contains the following data for each folder in the "Processed Material" table and form:

The Access database was used to document instances of incoming correspondence and other documents with what appear to be the original signatures ("autographs") of key political figures, including Presidents, Vice-Presidents, other Senators, and Congressmen/women. Original signatures of other select notable figures were also documented. Wherever autographs exist in a folder, the relevant field was checked "Yes," although specific names, particularly of the countless congressional autographs, were not always documented.
The presence in a folder of special formats such as photographs, blueprints, and maps was noted in the database.
As discussed in the Arrangement Note above, the folder date range was not typically determined from a review of the actual documents in the folders. The series descriptions discuss the most common source of dates for that series, but the Access database indicates the actual source consulted by the archivist for each folder.

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Name and Subject Tracings

Corporate Names

Amtrak
Anthony P. Miller, Inc
Atlantic Human Resources
Beverly National Cemetery (Beverly, N.J.)
Cape Human Resources
College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey
ConRail
Drug Abuse Resistance Education (Program)
GAF Corporation
Gateway National Recreation Area (Agency : U.S.). Sandy Hook Unit
Glassboro State College
NARCO, Inc.
National Aviation Facilities Experimental Center (U.S.)
New York Shipbuilding Corporation
NJ Transit
Ocean Community Economic Action Now
Picatinny Arsenal
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Puerto Rican Congress of New Jersey
R. H. Pines Corp
Rutgers University
United States. Congress—Private bills
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

Subject Headings

Abortion—Government policy—Citizen participation
Abscam Bribery Scandal, 1980
Agricultural credit
Airports—Planning
Animal traps—Law and legislation
Animal welfare—Law and legislation
Armed Forces—Procurement
Arms transfers
City planning
Civil rights—United States
Communication policy
Community colleges—New Jersey
Community development, Urban
Conservation of natural resources—Citizen participation
Conservation of natural resources—Law and legislation
Consumer complaints
Consumer protection—Law and legislation
Defense contracts
Deregulation—United States
Discrimination—United States
Draft—United States
Drug addicts—Rehabilitation
Economic assistance, American
Economic conversion—United States
Economic development projects—New Jersey
Education, Higher
Educational law and legislation
Education—Finance
Energy conservation—Law and legislation
Energy consumption—Law and legislation
Energy development—Law and legislation
Environmental law
Environmental policy
Environmental protection—Citizen participation
Exports
Federal aid to alcoholism programs
Federal aid to community development
Federal aid to drug abuse treatment programs
Federal aid to health facilities
Federal aid to law enforcement agencies
Federal aid to services for people with disabilities
Federal aid to small business
Federal aid to the arts
Federal aid to water resources development
Federal aid to youth services
Flood control
Foreign trade regulation
Grants-in-aid
Gun control
Housing authorities—New Jersey
Housing policy
Import quotas—United States
Industrial hygiene—Law and legislation—United States
Job creation—Law and legislation
Laboratory animals—Law and legislation
Labor laws and legislation—United States
Labor unions—United States
Legislative bodies—United States
Local transit
Manpower policy—United States
Medicare beneficiaries
Medicare—Law and legislation
Mental health laws—United States
Migrant labor—United States
Military assistance
Military bases—New Jersey
Military pensions—United States
Mine safety—Law and legislation—United States
Natural resources conservation areas—Law and legislation
Occupational training—Law and legislation
Older people—Housing
Older people—Medical care—United States
Open spaces—Law and legislation—United States
Pensions—Law and legislation—United States
Professional education
Public housing—New Jersey
Public housing—Resident satisfaction
Public works—New Jersey
Railroads—Commuting traffic
Railroads—Employees—Pensions
Right to labor—United States
Roads—New Jersey
Sewerage—New Jersey
Sewer districts—New Jersey
Social security beneficiaries—New Jersey
Social security—United States
Tariff—United States
Taxation—Public opinion
Tocks Island Reservoir Project
Transportation—United States
Trucking—Law and legislation
Urban policy
Urban renewal
Urban transportation
Veterans' hospitals—New Jersey
Veterans—Medical care—New Jersey
Vietnam War, 1961-1975—Protest movements
Vocational education
Water—Pollution
Wildlife conservation—Law and legislation

Geographic Locations

Asbury Park (N.J.)
Atlantic City (N.J.)
Atlantic County (N.J.)
Bayonne (N.J.)
Bergen County (N.J.)
Burlington County (N.J.)
Camden (N.J.)
Cape May County (N.J.)
Cumberland County (N.J.)
Delaware Bay (Del. and N.J.)
Delaware River (N.Y.-Del. and N.J.)
Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (N.J. and Pa.)
East Orange (N.J.)
Elizabeth (N.J.)
Ellis Island (N.J. and N.Y.)
Essex County (N.J.)
Fort Dix (N.J.)
Fort Monmouth (N.J.)
Gloucester County (N.J.)
Hackensack Meadowlands (N.J.)
Hackensack River (N.Y. and N.J.)
Hudson County (N.J.)
Hunterdon County (N.J.)
Israel—Foreign relations—United States
Jersey City (N.J.)
Mercer County (N.J.)
Middle East—Foreign relations—United States
Middlesex County (N.J.)
Monmouth County (N.J.)
Morris County (N.J.)
Naval Air Station (N.J.)
Newark (N.J.)
Newark Bay (N.J.)
New Brunswick (N.J.)
Ocean County (N.J.)
Panama Canal (Panama)
Panama—Foreign relations—United States
Passaic County (N.J.)
Passaic River (N.J.)
Paterson (N.J.)
Pine Barrens (N.J.)
Plainfield (N.J.)
Princeton (N.J.)
Raritan River (N.J.)
Salem County (N.J.)
Saudi Arabia—Foreign relations—United States
Somerset County (N.J.)
Toms River (N.J.)
Trenton (N.J.)
Union County (N.J.)
United States—Commerce
United States—Economic conditions—1971-1981
United States—Emigration and immigration
United States—Foreign relations—Israel
United States—Foreign relations—Middle East
United States—Foreign relations—Panama
United States—Foreign relations—Saudi Arabia
United States—Foreign relations—Vietnam
United States—Moral conditions
United States—Officials and employees—Pensions
United States—Officials and employees—Salaries, etc
United States—Politics and government—1961-1963
United States—Politics and government—1963-1969
United States—Politics and government—1969-1974
United States—Politics and government—1974-1977
United States—Politics and government—1977-1981
United States—Social conditions—1960-1980—Public opinion
Vietnam—Foreign relations—United States
Vineland (N.J.)

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