|Creator:||New Jersey Federation of Business and Professional Women|
|Title:||Inventory to the Records of New Jersey Federation of Business and Professional Women,|
|Quantity:||ca. 18 cubic ft. (15 records center cartons, 1 half records center carton, 1 manuscript box, 5 phase boxes and 2 oversize folders)|
|Abstract:||Records of the New Jersey Federation of Business and Professional Women that include minutes of the board and committees, reports of officers and committee chairwomen, by-laws, financial statements and records, membership rosters and charters of local clubs.|
|Collection No.:||MC 838|
|Location:||Stored offsite: Advance notice required to consult these records.|
|Repository:||Rutgers University. Special Collections and University Archives.|
The New Jersey Federation of Business and Professional Women (NJBPW) was founded on May 30, 1919. The Trenton Business and Professional Women's Club, the first such club in the state, took the lead in organizing the initial meeting. As well as members of the Trenton Club, the founders included representatives of various types of professional women's clubs, such as the Philanti Club of Paterson, the Young Women's Club of Orange, the Girls Service Club of Jersey City, the Business Girls Club of Camden, and others. 1 The establishment of the New Jersey Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, as it was originally known, was part of a national movement to create an organization of white collar working women. This movement arose out of the need to mobilize business and professional women during the First World War. In 1917, the U.S. War Department established a Women's War Council, made up of leaders of the Young Women's Christian Association, to collect data on working women in each state, which found that scattered local organizations already existed. As a result of the survey, the War Department allocated $65,000 to create a national organization. In May 1918, about one hundred women met in New York for a two-day planning meeting, the result of which was the creation of a new organization known as the National Business Women's Committee, made up of 25 women representing various clubs and organizations. Lena Madesin Phillips, the newly-arrived Secretary of the National Board of the YWCA, who had expressed a desire to work among business and professional women, was chosen as executive secretary.
Although the Armistice was signed before Phillips could begin her new duties, the War Department authorized the continuing funding of the project as valuable to post-war society. Under Phillips' leadership, the Committee divided the country into five districts, put an organizer in charge of each one, and drafted a sample constitution. In March 1919, the Committee recommended that state federations be established, and delegates met in St. Louis in July to form a permanent organization. While the New Jersey federation's role in the founding convention is unclear, among the delegates was Louise Connelly, a museum curator from New Jersey, and attorney Paula Laddey, also of New Jersey, who became the first national federation treasurer and was one of the designers of the national federation's constitution. Lena Madesin Phillips continued as executive secretary of the new organization. 2
The purpose of the New Jersey Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, as expressed in the earliest extant example of the state constitution, was: to promote the interests of Business and Professional Women; to secure beneficial legislation for women, to encourage co-operative efforts among women and an inter change of ideas;to gather and distribute information relative to vocational opportunities and to bring about a great solidarity of feeling among business and professional women throughout the State. 3
The constitution set up two classes of membership (club and individual) and stipulated that every club holding membership in the state federation would automatically become a member of the national federation, paying dues accordingly. Notably, only clubs 75 per cent of whose membership was made up of active business and professional women were eligible for membership. The constitution also identified officers (President, First Vice President, Second Vice President, Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, and Treasurer), who were to be elected by ballot at the annual meeting. A Third Vice President was added later. The constitution also set up standing committees, initially legislation, program and publicity, organization, membership, and finance. Other committees were added or subtracted as needed. One of the duties of the program committee was to outline suggested programs of study and advocacy to the state federations, and through them to the local clubs. 4 Local clubs could in turn make program suggestions through their state federation which were transmitted to the national. Most importantly, the constitution established the policy of the federation as a "self-governing, self-supporting, non-sectarian, and non-partisan" organization. 5
In the early years of its existence, the New Jersey federation focused its efforts on the founding of new clubs. In the Charter Day Celebration on November 19, 1923, national federation president Lena Lake Forrest presented charters to the New Brunswick, Princeton, Plainfield, Trenton and Summit clubs. By the annual meeting held in Lakewood in 1926, there were seven local clubs in New Jersey, including members from 50 different businesses and professions, as compared to 15 a few years earlier. At this meeting, dues were raised from 25 to 50 cents per member. During this period, the federation actively raised money for scholarships, contributing to the national Lena Lake Forrest Scholarship Fund, founded in 1923. In 1927, a scholarship and loan fund was established in honor of Mary L. Johnston, state president from 1922 to 1928 and national treasurer. The first recipient was Barbara Milliken, a student at Jackson College in Medford, Massachusetts. The federation also became involved in the first of many legislative campaigns. In 1921, each local club was urged to appoint a committee to study special legislation for women. In that year, the federation joined the New Jersey League of Women Voters and other women's organizations in endorsing the Sheppard Towner Maternity and Infancy Protection Act, which provided federal funds to improve maternal and infancy care. 6
The second decade of the federation's existence began positively with the inauguration, after several false starts, of an annual statewide publication, Chat, which reported on local club news, in 1929. In 1928, the national federation had introduced the yearly observation of National Business Women's Week, which was first celebrated in New Jersey with a proclamation by the state governor in 1930. During Business Women's Week, clubs throughout the country called "national attention to the purposes and achievements of the federation through elaborate community events in each locality." 7
In the late 1920s, the NJBPW followed the lead of the national federation in supporting the cause of international peace. In 1923, at the Portland, Oregon Convention, the national federation declared in favor of the entry of the United States into the World Court. 8 In November 1928, the state federation endorsed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, a multi-lateral treaty by which all signatories renounced war as an instrument of national policy. 9 The New Jersey federation also joined an umbrella organization, the New Jersey branch of the Committee on the Cause and Cure of War, which included ten other state women's organizations. 10 In conjunction with the Committee, the federation contributed $25 for a delegate from New Jersey to attend the national convention, two local conferences were held, programs were suggested and "an institute was held for training in leadership of groups for study of international problems." 11 The national federation had established a Commission on International Relations, which sponsored a series of goodwill tours to meet with business and professional women from other countries. In 1930, Lena Madesin Phillips, who served as national president from 1927 to 1929, founded the International Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs in Geneva, of which the U.S. federation became an affiliate.
The economic crisis of the Great Depression, however, led to a change in the federation's direction. In 1931, the national federation adopted a Ten-Year Objective which broadened the organization's mission to include "improving social and economic conditions of everyone to ensure fullest opportunities for development of their varying capacities." 12 On the local level, New Jersey responded with several initiatives. In 1931, the federation lobbied for the Old Age Pension Bill then before the New Jersey Assembly. In 1933, the state federation wrote to the governor urging continuation of the Bureau for Women and Children; only established in 1929, the Bureau had been suspended as a result of the Depression. 13 At the 1933 state convention in Atlantic City, the federation recommended that each club establish an Economic Roundtable in line with the Ten Year Objective. At the convention the following year, the federation resolved to "contribute towards economic rehabilitation by adopting as a major project the re-employment of white collar women." 14 In response, local clubs set up vocational referral bureaus, and worked with local Chambers of Commerce, State Emergency Relief bureaus, businesses and men's service clubs to match applicants with jobs. By May 1934, a total of 178 women were placed in temporary or permanent jobs. 15
During the early 1930s, the federation was divided in its support for protective legislation, measures which limited the hours, set minimum wages, and prohibited night work for women. These laws, which were supported by the majority of working-class women's organizations, were seen as important for protecting women's health and well-being and saving them from exploitation. In 1933, in spite of the opposition of former suffragist Amelia Moorfield, president of the Newark Club, who served as a representative of the Industrial Standards Committee on the state board, the federation passed a resolution opposing any labor legislation which did not equally protect men and women. 16
At the 1937 Biennial Convention, which was held in Atlantic City, the national federation passed a resolution declaring itself opposed to any legislation which protected women only. From this resolution, it naturally followed that the federation would come out in support of the Equal Rights Amendment. The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), written by Alice Paul and first introduced in Congress in 1923, was opposed by women's organizations such as the State Federation of Women's Clubs, Consumers League and the League of Women Voters, who feared it would invalidate the protective legislation for which they had fought so hard. In 1937, under the leadership of its new president, attorney and former state assemblywoman May Carty, the NJBPW endorsed the Equal Rights Amendment: Whereas, this Federation has for the past six annual conventions declared itself as opposed to all discriminatory legislation including so-called "protective legislation" for women, be it therefore resolved that we support the Susan B. Anthony amendment to the Federal constitution and that we instruct our delegates to the National Convention of this action and policy. 17
Carty, who had supported protective legislation in the Assembly ten years before, like many other upper middle-class professional women, changed her position when she realized that such laws might interfere with her goal of equality with men. 18
In 1938, veteran suffragist Mary Philbrook formed the Committee to Eliminate Discrimination against Women (CEDAW,) which included representatives of the New Jersey Women Lawyers Club and NJBPW. CEDAW's objectives were to repeal protective legislation and to secure passage of an ERA to the state constitution. The group drew up two bills, one to amend the minimum wage law by deleting the word woman, and another to repeal the Night Work Law. The NJBPW, which at that time boasted five thousand members, endorsed both bills. Although neither bill was successful, the drive for a state ERA would have important consequences.
In late 1940, the New Jersey League of Women Voters was approached by several organizations and individuals to promote the idea of revising the now antiquated 1844 New Jersey State constitution. The movement for revision was inaugurated in February 1941 when League president Lena Anthony Robbins chaired a meeting attended by about 200 representatives of interested groups, including the NJBPW. Unlike the League, however, the NJBPW was not deeply involved in the plans for constitution revision, except as pertained to the Equal Rights Amendment. In spring 1941, Mary Philbrook formed the Women's Consultive Committee on Constitutional Amendments, the sole purpose of which was to incorporate a state ERA into the new constitution. Among the members of this 23-woman committee was NJBPW president Emma Dillon, the first female executive officeholder of the New Jersey State Bar Association.
The outbreak of war in December 1941 caused the NJBPW to once again shift its focus. Topics of discussion at the 1942 annual convention included the constitutional legitimacy of Japanese internment, and how the federation could best contribute to the programs of the State Defense Council. Indeed the NJBPW was extremely successful in raising money for the war effort. Through the purchase of war bonds, the federation financed the building of an Air Craft Rescue Boat and hospital airplane, for which it received an award from the U.S. Treasury Department. Women's participation in war work did, however, make the concept of protective legislation seem outdated. NJBPW and CEDAW called for complete repeal of the laws, while the League of Women Voters and Consumers League supported a one year limitation.
In spite of the wartime emergency, work on the revision of the New Jersey constitution continued. Between 1942 and early 1944, Mary Philbrook and the Committee on Constitutional Amendments continued to press for the inclusion of an ERA in the revised constitution. When in spring 1944, she learned that the proposal did not include a specific amendment guaranteeing equal rights for women, Philbrook organized the Women's Non-Partisan Committee against the Proposed Revised Constitution. This committee was co-chaired by Emma Dillon and included the president of the Business and Professional Women of Westfield. The committee issued press releases, broadsides, pamphlets, and gave speeches urging women to vote no to the referendum. Emma Dillon agreed with Philbrook but opposed any militant activity, noting that the long-retired Philbrook could spend all of her time on the campaign, while her own members had to spend 90 per cent of their time earning their livings. 19
The referendum was ultimately defeated by a coalition of women's organizations and forces loyal to Democratic Party chairman Frank Hague, who viewed the constitution as partisan and threatening to the power of his local organization.
The movement was revived in January 1947, when, in his inaugural address, Governor Alfred E. Driscoll called for revision by Constitutional Convention. Mary Philbrook, now 74, immediately organized the Women's Alliance for Equal Status, which included the NJBPW, the New Jersey Women's Party, the New Jersey Women Lawyers Club and the Organization of Women Legislators of New Jersey. The members submitted a proposed Equal Rights Clause to the Convention: All persons are by nature free and independent, and have certain natural and unalienable rights among which are those of enjoying life and liberty, acquiring and possessing, and protecting property, and of pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness. The word "persons" shall be construed to "mean men and women, and no distinction shall be created between them in their equal enjoyment of said rights." 20
The convention had eight women delegates, including Jane Barus, president of the League of Women Voters of New Jersey, and Olive Sanford, assemblywoman and former president of the League. Several NJBPW members ran for delegate positions, but none were elected. 21
During the convention, Philbrook's committee sought out the Committee on Rights and Privileges and on Rules, and urged them to include the equal rights clause. The Committee on Rights, however, was uncomfortable with the clause because of the fear that the specific reference to women would invalidate protective legislation--the committee furthermore perceived that women were divided among themselves over the issue. Only by an ingenious compromise devised by four women attorneys and NJBPW members was the controversy resolved.
These four women--May Carty, former NJBPW president Myra Blakeslee, Judge Libby Sachar, president of the BPW of the Plainfields, and Marguerite Carpenter of the Orange BPW--drafted a resolution that wherever the word men appeared in the 1844 constitution's Bill of Rights, the word person should be substituted, and that the word person should be explicitly stated to refer to both sexes. The resolution was a compromise in that by avoiding a specific declaration of equal rights for women, it did not contradict the protective legislation already on the books. The resolution was introduced to the committee by convention vice-president Marie Katzenbach with Blakeslee, Carpenter, Sachar and Emma Dillon in attendance, and passed. Philbrook's Women's Alliance supported the proposal, although some members felt it was an interim compromise. The constitution was approved by the voters on November 4, 1947. 22
In the wake of the approval of the new constitution, the federation embarked on an ambitious legislative program. In November 1948, the board pledged to introduce an equal pay for equal work bill in the state legislature; to endeavor to have the No Night Work Law repealed; and to have the Fair Employment Practice Law amended to include the word sex. 23 The Equal Pay for Equal Work bill, which was introduced in the state legislature by assemblywoman Florence Dwyer of the Elizabeth Club, was passed in 1952 and became a model for the federal bill. 24 The New Jersey federation also encouraged the governor to appoint qualified women to governmental posts. 25 This policy was in line with the tactics of the national BPW, which set up its own Roster of Qualified Women, which it sent to the State Department, and encouraged local clubs to do the same. 26
The federation also renewed its support for internationalism in the new post-war world. During the war, a new umbrella organization, the New Jersey Women's Action Committee for a Lasting Peace, was formed with the demise of the Committee on the Cause and Cure of War. Emily Hickman, professor at New Jersey College for Women, active member of the New Brunswick club, and chair of the state federation's international relations committee, served as head of the new organization's education committee. 27 The Women's Action Committee lobbied to have women appointed to posts in international organizations. Although it suspended operations after the death of Hickman in a car accident in 1947, it resumed activity in 1951. The NJBPW also followed the national federation's policy of support for the United Nations and the peaceful resolution of international disputes. 28 In 1949, the New Jersey federation actively opposed the appointment of Judge Dorothy Kenyon to the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women because of her known opposition to the ERA. 29 In 1955, Alba Thompson of New Jersey served as United Nations Observer.
The 1950s were years of prosperity for the NJBPW. The federation's legislation committee was active on several fronts. The federation continued to lobby the governor to appoint women to high-level civil service posts. At the same time, concerned with the state's inadequate resources to meet the need for higher education, the federation passed a resolution to support a bond issue for the improvement of the state teachers' colleges. 30 The federation continued to be concerned with all types of legislation that would affect working women. In 1953-1954, it made a study of proposed revisions in the Income Tax Law, and as a result of its findings, lobbied Congress to grant additional deductions to taxpayers with young children, or old or infirm dependents. The federation also sought to have all Civil Service examinations opened to women; in 1958, it wrote in protest when it was discovered that the examination for Inspector of Migrant Labor was not open to women. 31
Throughout the decade, the federation continued to lobby for the Equal Rights Amendment. In 1956, Florence Dwyer was elected to the House of Representatives, where she would serve eight terms. In Congress, she advocated many of the causes supported by the NJBPW, such as equal pay legislation at the federal level. In 1970, with the help of Representative Martha Griffith of Michigan, she brought the Equal Rights Amendment, which had been stalled in committee since 1923, to the floor of the House.
The 1950s were also characterized by fund-raising drives and an expansion of program areas. Concerned for the retired members of the state federation, in 1951 a new committee on cooperative homes began to raise money for small-scale housing which would be owned and operated by the federation on a non-profit basis. Originally named the J. Margaret Warner Cooperative Residences, after state president Margaret Warner, in 1955, the name was changed at Warner's request to the Myra A. Blakeslee Building Fund after the former state president. Although by 1960 the fund had raised almost $4000, a special committee to study its growth came to the conclusion that the capital required for such a project was too great, and the money was subsequently returned to the local clubs. 32
A more successful fund-raising venture was the drive to raise money for a national headquarters building. Established in 1931, the campaign languished during the Depression, but was revived in later years with New Jersey leading the drive for funds, contributing 147 per cent of its state quota. During the move of the national headquarters from New York to Washington, D.C. in 1956, Helen Hurd, Dean of Students at University College, the Rutgers evening division, and president of the New Brunswick club, took a leave of absence to serve as executive director of the national federation. Hurd was also one of the founders of the Business and Professional Women's Foundation, incorporated in 1956. 33 In this year, the New Jersey federation presented a portrait of Lena Madesin Phillips to the national headquarters, in recognition of her work for the International Federation.
The state federation inaugurated two successful programs during this period. In 1944, the federation established a scholarship to the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs in Syracuse, New York for women interested in public administration. The scholarship program, which was matched by the School, earned the New Jersey federation national recognition. In 1955, a program was established whereby the federation awarded a scholarship to three public institutions in the state which were preparing women for business and the professions. After designating three different institutions each year, the federation left them to choose the winners.
Following the lead of the national federation, New Jersey embarked on several new program areas during the 1950s. As part of the new women's health area, local clubs studied ageing, mental health, children, accident prevention, and the provision of housing for retired women. The federation also promoted legislation for the mandatory licensing of nurses. 34 In 1951, the federation was awarded a certificate of merit from the Automotive Safety Foundation in recognition of "meritorious action in initiating and continuing a state-wide program stimulating public and official interest in the adoption of uniform traffic laws." 35 Another new program area was Civil Defense. In 1953, the national board issued a Declaration of Principles urging members "to remain alert and to reorganize their programs and efforts to combat communism." 36 In turn, in 1953, the Civil Defense Chairman encouraged local clubs to use the pamphlet Our Own Communists Can Cripple Us as discussion material, adding, however "let's not be witch-hunters but don't let's play into the hands of the Communits [sic]. Think of national security as a vital part of club and community work." 37
During the 1960s, the federation was involved in legislative activity at both the national and state level. In 1962, Florence Dwyer co-sponsored the Equal Pay Bill in the House of Representatives, and it was passed the following year. In 1964, following the policy of the national federation, the NJBPW supported the Civil Rights Act, which went beyond the Equal Pay Act by prohibiting discrimination in hiring and promotion and included "sex" as one of the illegal bases for discrimination. 38At the state level, the federation lobbied for the Equal Credit Act (1962), and for the appointment of a Status of Women Commission by the governor. In August 1964, Doris Hubatka, past-president of the New Jersey club was elected commission chairman. Other club women holding prominent positions during this period were Assemblywoman and later State Senator, Mildred Barry Hughes of the Elizabeth Club, and Katharine Elkus White, the first woman to be elected mayor of a New Jersey city, Red Bank, in 1963. In the 1962 congressional race, Florence Dwyer was challenged by another BPW member, Democrat Lilian Walsh Egolf of Rahway. In June 1968, the state convention passed two important resolutions: they urged the governor to establish a Women's Department within the newly created Department of Community Affairs; and they demanded that the Abortion Study Commission include at least one woman member. 39
The state federation's program expanded into several new areas during this period, many of which reflected an attempt to attract younger women. In 1962-1963, reflecting changing priorities, several new committees were created or renamed: Personal Development, Civic Participation, World Affairs and Public Relations. Personal development dealt "directly with the individual; her personal well-being, health (mental and physical), appearance, charm, opportunities and career...." 40 Civic Participation included a new focus on the problems of water and air pollution, in addition to civil defense; while as part of World Affairs, local clubs were encouraged to plan cultural activities and host members from overseas. In fact, in 1963 New Jersey won a national award for excellence in programming. As part of the new Young Career Woman Program, established in 1963, the club awarded an outstanding woman between the ages of 21 and 26, employed in business or a profession at least a year, a scholarship to attend the national convention. Local clubs were also active in founding Nike and Samothrace clubs for high school and college women respectively. These clubs, named for the elements of the BPW's emblem, were designed to encourage women to become involved in the BPW movement at an early age. In 1970, New Jersey had nine Nike clubs and one Samothrace club (at Drew University). 41
In spite of the New Jersey federation's many successes during the 1960s, signs were already appearing of a weakening membership base. As early as 1949, the national federation identified New Jersey as having one of the lowest proportions of members in the country, as compared to the overall number of women in the state. 42 In the mid-1950s, both the national and state federations became concerned about attrition among members. Although many women joined local Business and Professional Women's clubs, it was hard to retain members, particularly young women. By the 1960s, the problem was becoming more acute. In 1965, the New Jersey federation set up goals for the stabilization and equalization of its membership. "Stabilization" referred to retaining members from the previous year, while "equalization" meant bringing in new members to replace those who did not renew. In fact, in 1967, New Jersey won an award for increasing membership through starting six new clubs in Hoboken, Berkeley Heights, Maplewood, Secaucus, Hightstown and Edison. 43 It is noteworthy that most of these new clubs were in the fast-growing suburbs, while older city clubs such as Plainfield and Newark were losing members, and in Newark's case, disbanding in 1967.
Declining membership became a serious problem in the 1970s. In December 1970, state president Katherine B. Eastburn deplored the loss of 600 members that year and called on clubs to be more inclusive. The problem was nationwide, however. A 1971 study commissioned to mark the 50th anniversary of the national federation found evidence of deterioration and declining membership, while noting that other organizations such as the American Association of University Women, Zonta, the Daughters of the American Revolution, and the Negro Business and Professional Women showed growth. 44 The federation continued to try to increase and retain members through various schemes including a revamped award system for local clubs successful in attracting members, and a new district-based structure, allowing for more combined meetings and programs.
In spite of these difficulties, the NJBPW achieved several of its legislative objectives during the 1970s, such as the repeal of protective legislation in 1971. At the June 1970 state convention, the federation approved a resolution to support legislation implementing the majority report of the New Jersey Commission to Study Statutes Relating to Abortion. This report recommended the legalization of abortion in cases of rape, incest, an underage unmarried mother, a defective fetus, or to preserve the life and health of the mother. The landmark Supreme Court decision Roe vs. Wade in 1972 effectively guaranteed abortion rights at the federal level. The NJPBW renewed its support of reproductive freedom in the early 1990s, however, when various attempts were made to pass restrictive legislation. For example, in 1989, the federation joined a group of 31 organizations pledged to defend the right to choose, and in 1990 was listed in a pro-choice advertisement in the New York Times. 45
In 1972, New Jersey ratified the centerpiece of the BPW's legislative platform, the federal Equal Rights Amendment, after intensive lobbying by the federation and other women's organizations. After ratification, the federation raised money for the national campaign to ratify the ERA in other states, contributing $4672 by 1974. 46 In 1975, the state board declined, however, to align itself with the newly-formed N.J. Coalition for ERA, stating, "Autonomy will project attitudes that will attract segments of the voting populace that will not be reached by the predominantly feminist groups of which the coalition is comprised." 47 In 1977, the federation lobbied against Senator Dunn's effort to rescind New Jersey's ratification of the ERA. By 1982, however, only 35 states had ratified the amendment, three short of the 38 necessary for final ratification. In New Jersey, however, the effort to pass a separate state ERA (rejected by the voters in 1975) led to a rediscovery of the equal rights clause in the New Jersey constitution. In 1977, the NJBPW acted as a Friend of the Court in the case of Peper vs. the Princeton University Board of Trustees. In this case, in which a Princeton employee, Ilene Peper, sued the university over her failure to be promoted, the New Jersey Supreme Court held that the New Jersey constitution was an effective prohibitor of sex discrimination. 48
In the 1980s and 1990s, the NJBPW undertook new legislative and programmatic goals, while grappling with a continuing membership crisis. In addition to the traditional equity and workplace issues, the federation lobbied for legislation related to women's health and welfare. For instance, the 1988-1989 platform supported legislation for affordable health care for all women with a special emphasis on AIDS-related disorders; welfare reform; government-subsidized shelters for the homeless and victims of domestic violence; affordable dependent care centers and services and guaranteed parental leave rights; prevention of child abuse and enforcement of child support payments; and affordable housing. Along with other organizations, the NJBPW lobbied successfully for the Domestic Violence Act of 1990; and was an invited guest at the signing of the Mammography Bill (1991), which required private insurance companies and Health Maintenance Organizations to pay for mammograms. Later the NJBPW lobbied successfully to include a check-off on New Jersey tax returns to contribute to breast cancer research. In 1992, the state federation supported the nationwide campaign for the federal Family and Medical Leave Bill. At the same time, the federation continued to lobby for equity legislation such as the Fair Pay Act of 1994. In that year, the state board passed a resolution that the ERA (which had been re-introduced in Congress in 1987) would be first and foremost of all legislative platform issues. 49
In spite of these successful campaigns, membership continued to decline. The federation introduced several initiatives to attract new members. In 1980, men were allowed to join for the first time, and in 1987, a new category of at-large members was introduced. Other strategies were the formation of membership expansion teams throughout the state, mergers, reforming or relocating old clubs, and relocating meeting places. The federation also introduced new fund-raising schemes, such as fashion shows. In 1985, the New Jersey Federation of Business and Professional Women dropped the antiquated-sounding "clubs" from its name. These strategies were somewhat successful. The Newark BPW, defunct since 1967, was reborn as the Metropolitan BPW, aimed at women who worked in the Newark area; and new clubs were started in previously rural areas which were rapidly being developed-South Somerset, Southern Ocean County and Central Jersey are a few examples. In 1987, the federation opened its first state office in Westfield.
However, by 1990 the BPW/USA's Revitalization Action Plan declared "We are at a crisis point in BPW's life. It is time to reevaluate our priorities....We must act now to rebuild our organization from the ground up." 50 The New Jersey federation totaled 1300 members in 1990. Clare E. Wherley, CPA, analyzed some of the causes of the decline in a thoughtful letter to the editor of The Voice of Working Women. She identified a need to reexamine what BPW stood for, noting that before the 1970s, BPW was the organization for working women, while by 1990, many working women's organizations representing specific occupations or special interests were available. 51 To try to streamline the organization, in August 1994, the BPW/USA Board of Directors voted to eliminate the mandatory requirements for local and state standing committees, so clubs could focus their attention on the issues of greatest importance. This suggestion had originated with the Sussex BPW, and made its way through the state federation to the national level. In the winter of 1996, the federation was considering disbanding or at least simplifying the overlaying district structure.
Another way in which the federation sought to adapt to a changing society was through expanding its educational programming, with a more direct focus on business. Beginning in the late 1970s, the state federation and districts held seminars such as "Financial Management for Women," and "Stress Management for Business and Professional Women." In 1983, with funding from the national federation, the NJBPW introduced Career Development Awards, scholarships for working women to advance their careers. At the May 1986 convention, the federation established an Educational Council to develop philosophy, guidelines and plans for implementing a training program for working women, with members and an advisory board representing business, education and government. In 1992, the Council conducted a study on what types of workshops and seminars would benefit members the most. The following year, the federation introduced workshops and seminars at state board meetings on topics such as how to choose a business partner, why sales people fail, and networking. Meanwhile, at the local level the popular Personal Development Committee (renamed Individual Development in 1969) sponsored programs on public speaking, debates, personal growth and leadership. 52 Today, although the New Jersey Business and Professional Women closed its state headquarters in 2001, it maintains a web site and virtual office and continues its educational, scholarship, publications and legislative programs in cooperation with the national federation.
(1) Minutes (May 30, 1919), Box 2, Folder 1.
(2) A History of the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc. 1919-1944 (New York, 1944), p. 12-24.
(3) Constitution, ca. 1929, Box 1, Folder 4.
(4) Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws of the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs (New York, 1924-25), p. 12. Box 1, Folder 1.
(5) Constitution, ca. 1929, Box 1, Folder 4. The New Jersey federation became incorporated in 1937
(6) Genevieve Ford, "History of the New Jersey Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs," TS, p. 2-4.
(7) History of the National Federation, p. 46
(8) History of the National Federation, p. 46
(9) Minutes (November 17, 1928), Box 2, Folder 5.
(10) Felice D. Gordon, After Winning: The Legacy of the New Jersey Suffragists, 1920-1947 (New Brunswick, 1986), p. 66-68
(11) Genevieve Ford, "History of the New Jersey Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs," TS, p. 2.
(12) Handbook of Federation Procedures (Washington, D.C., 1957), p. 6, Box 6, Folder 34.
(13) Minutes (March 18, 1933), Box 2, Folder 7.
(14) Minutes of 16th Annual Convention (May 18-20, 1934), Box 2, Folder 7.
(15) Report (April 15, 1935), Box 13, Folder 35.
(16) Minutes (March 18 and May 20, 1933), Box 2, Folder 7.
(17) Proceedings, 19th Annual Convention (May 15, 1937), p. 23, Box 2, Folder 9.
(18) Jean Azulery, "May Margaret Carty, 1882-1958," in Past and Promise: Lives of New Jersey Women" (Syracuse, N.Y., 1997), p. 251.
(19) Quoted in Sanjana Chopra, "The Battle for Equality: New Jersey's Equal Rights Amendment." (Unpublished Mabel Smith Douglass Honors Thesis, Rutgers University, 1999), p. 19.
(20) As quoted in Maxine Lurie, "The Twisted Path to Greater Equality: Women and the 1947 Constitution,"New Jersey History, Vol. 117, No. 1-2 (Spring/Summer 1999), p. 42.
(21) Sanjana Chopra, "The Battle for Equality: New Jersey's Equal Rights Amendment." (Unpublished Mabel Smith Douglass Honors Thesis, Rutgers University, 1999), p. 28.
(22) Felice D. Gordon, After Winning: The Legacy of the New Jersey Suffragists, 1920-1947 (New Brunswick, 1986), p. 186-187.
(23) Marguerite M. Carpenter to Legislative Chairman (November 24, 1948), Box 4, Folder 34.
(24) Katherine S. Allen, "Florence Price Dwyer, 1902-1976,"in Past and Promise, p. 274.
(25) Resolution (May 21, 1949), Box 13, Folder 45.
(26) Leila J. Rupp and Verta Taylor, Survival in the Doldrums: the American Women's Rights Movement, 1945 to the 1960s (New York, 1987), p. 66.
(27) John W. Chambers II and Larayne J. Dallas, "Emily Gregory Hickman, 1880-1947," Past and Promise, p. 32.
(28) Annual Convention, 1948, Minutes, Box 2, Folder 21.
(29) Newark Sunday News (May 22, 1949), Box 13, Folder 48.
(30) Minutes (January 20, 1951 and September 15, 1951), Box 2, Folder 23.
(31) Minutes (September 20, 1958), Box 2 Folder 36.
(32) Treasurer's Statement (November 19, 1960), Box 5, Folder 18 and Minutes (March 18, 1961), Box 2, Folder 37, and Minutes (September 9, 1961), Box 2, Folder 38.
(33) Marguerite Rawalt, A History of the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., Vol. II 1944-1960 (Washington, D.C., 1969), p. 31.
(34) Report from Chairman, Committee on Health and Safety (Nov. 21, 1953), Box 4, Folder 38.
(35) Genevieve Ford, "History of the New Jersey Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs," TS, p. 3.
(36) Leila J. Rupp and Verta Taylor, Survival in the Doldrums: the American Women's Rights Movement, 1945 to the 1960s (New York, 1987), p. 139.
(37) Report (Nov. 21, 1953), Box 4, Folder 38.
(38) "The Fight for Equality: A BPW Photographic Journey."
(39) New Jersey Business Woman (June 1968) and Minutes (May 17, 1968), Box 2, Folder 44.
(40) New Jersey Business Woman (June 1967).
(41) Box 9, Folder 38.
(42) Report, Membership Chairman (1949), Box 13, Folder 39.
(43) New Jersey Business Woman (June 1967).
(44) New Jersey Business Woman (December 1970 and April 1971).
(45) Minutes (February 1990), Box 3, Folder 43.
(46) New Jersey Business Woman (August 1974).
(47) Minutes (September 20, 1975), Box 3, Folder 9.
(48) Sanjana Chopra, "The Battle for Equality: New Jersey's Equal Rights Amendment." (Unpublished Mabel Smith Douglass Honors Thesis, Rutgers University, 1999), p. 58.
(49) The Voice of Working Women (formerly New Jersey Business Woman) (August 1994).
(50) The Voice of Working Women (formerly New Jersey Business Woman) (November 1990).
(51) The Voice of Working Women (formerly New Jersey Business Woman) (November 1990).
(52) The Voice of Working Women (formerly New Jersey Business Woman) (September 1991).
Return to the Top
|1919-1920||M. Dorothy Eby|
|1920-1922||Mary G. Cummings (Dr.)|
|1922-1928||Mary L. Johnston Shattuck|
|1928-1930||Jane Packard Schirber|
|1930-1932||Edna R. Portman|
|1932-1935||Myra Allen Blakeslee|
|1935-1937||Jessie L. Winkworth Boyer|
|1937-1939||May M. Carty|
|1939-1941||Frances A. Britton|
|1943-1946||Marta B. Taylor|
|1946-1948||Mabel Wells March|
|1948-1950||J. Margaret Warner|
|1950-1952||Sally C. Aiken Brewer|
|1952-1954||Libby E. Sachar (Hon.)|
|1954-1956||Eileen G. Brady (Hon.)|
|1956-1958||Roberta L. Halligan|
|1960-1962||Emma C. McGall|
|1964-1966||Helen G. Hurd|
|1966-1968||Charlotte B. McCracken|
|1969-1970||Mary Louise Wetjen|
|1970-1971||Katharine B. Eastburn|
|1971-1972||Mildred C. deSimone|
|1973-1974||Tina E. Adams|
|1975-1976||Eleanor R. Steger|
|1978-1979||Margaret J. Harris|
|1979-1980||Anita K. Bernstein|
|1980-1981||Mary M. Gray|
|1981-1982||Sr. Carmela M. Cristiano|
|1983-1984||Muriel R. deAzevedo|
|1985-1986||Mary E. Haynie|
|1986-1987||Margaret M. Murray|
|1987-1988||Sister Mary Alexandrine|
|1988-1989||Michele F. Plock|
|1989-1990||Joan A. Buchanan|
|1991-1992||Maryann R. Dorin|
Return to the Top
The records of the New Jersey Business and Professional Women comprise approximately 18 cubic feet of material (15 records center cartons, 1 half records center carton, 1 manuscript box, 5 phase boxes and 3 oversize folders) spanning the period 1919 to 1998. There is only a small amount of material pre-dating 1923. The records are divided into two sub-groups, the New Jersey Business and Professional Women (NJBPW) and the Business and Professional Women of the United States (BPWUSA). The latter is mostly comprised of publications received from the national federation. Included in or with the records are scattered documents of sister organizations: the International Federation of BPW Clubs, the BPW Foundation and the Northeast Regional BPW. The collection was assembled retrospectively during the mid-1950s, which accounts somewhat for the early gaps in the records. Periodic additions to the records have been made subsequently and are expected as the NJBPW continues as an on-going organization.
Included in the records of the New Jersey Federation of Business and Professional Women are minutes of the board and committees, reports of officers and committee chairwomen, by-laws, financial statements and records, membership rosters and charters of local clubs. A set of PRESIDENT'S GENERAL FILES selectively contains, in addition to more administrative records: programs for honorarium dinners and NJBPW-sponsored events, clippings and press releases, miscellaneous correspondence and a typescript history of the organization. Both the national and state federation conventions are documented variously by programs, reports and convention proceedings, which are accompanied by photographs and memorabilia. Several oversize photographs, certificates and other documents are stored separately.
The financial records are incomplete, with correspondence only dating from 1988 to 1995, and audited financial statements for 1945-1946, and from 1956-1957 to 1992-1993. The treasurer's quarterly reports are the most complete source of financial information, although these too contain gaps. The yearly budget is found in the treasurer's reports. The financial records of the Mary Johnston scholarship program are complete from 1927 to 1970, a thorough documentation of a significant NJBPW activity.
Lists of dues paying-members are detailed in scope for the period from 1946 to 1974, and from 1990-1995, while only local committee chairwomen and officers are listed for 1927-1945 and again for 1975-1978. Other documents included in the collection are copies of revised by-laws, incorporation and charter documents of the local clubs, and diverse certificates.
While the activities and programs of the NJBPW appear chronicled in the administrative files and documented by award certificates, other than minutes and reports the collection affords little commentary about how the BPW administers it programs. Correspondence present pertains primarily to routine administration, usually centered around coordinating the activity of the local clubs. Newspaper clippings adequately fill the void for the 1929 to 1953 period.
Legislative and social issues championed by the BPW organizations appear documented in the records. The NJBPW played a role in forwarding pieces of legislation at the local and state levels, and offered input during the drafting of the New Jersey State Constitution of 1947. The federation was instrumental in gaining passage of the state equal pay for equal work bill, and labored on behalf of the Equal Rights Amendment. Throughout its existence, the BPW has endeavored to provide scholarship funding for young women. The scope of its activity in this area is reflected throughout the records. The efforts of the BPW in New Jersey may be assessed in the context of the national federation, whose records have been preserved at the BPWUSA headquarters in Washington, D.C.
Return to the Top
Related collections in Special Collections and University Archives, Rutgers University Libraries include the records of the Business and Professional Women of New Brunswick (MC 778), the records of the Business and Professional Women's Club of the Plainfields (MC 928), the records of the (now defunct) Business and Professional Women's Club of Newark (MC 296), and small amounts of material from the Woodbridge, Linden, and Gloucester County clubs. The papers of Helen G. Hurd, state president from 1964-1966 are in the University Archives (RMC 56).
Return to the Top
Return to the Top
|New Jersey Business and Professional Women|
|I. BY-LAWS AND CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION/National|
|1||1-2||By-Laws and Certificate of Incorporation/National, 1924-27, 1929-31, 1937, 1944, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1961, 1965, 1967, 1969, and 1982|
|II. BY-LAWS AND CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION/State, 1924-1995 (with gaps) (1 manuscript box)|
|Grouped chronologically in four subseries.|
|By-laws of the N.J. federation from circa 1929 to 1979, together with by-laws of the national federation from 1924-1969 and 1982. Attached to the early by-laws are copies of the constitution. Also included are model club by-laws, 1953-1966, issued by the national organization, together with the by-laws of the Trenton club (1966), the Princeton club (1954) and the Hillside club (undated). A rough draft of the certificate of incorporation is dated 1936; the two copies present of the original filed in 1937 were made in 1949 and 1964. The Somerset club's certificate of incorporation (1985) and documentation of the disbanding of the Bordentown club (1995) are also included.|
|1||3||By-Laws and Certificate of Incorporation/State, 1936, 1949, 1954, 1955, and 1964|
|1.4-6||By-Laws and Certificate of Incorporation/State, Post-1969, undated|
|1.7||By-Laws and Certificate of Incorporation/State, 1947, 1950, 1959, and 1962|
|1||8-9||By-Laws and Certificate of Incorporation/State, 1963-1965, 1967, 1969, and 1971|
|1.10-11||By-Laws and Certificate of Incorporation/State, 1972-1977, and 1979|
|III. BY-LAWS AND CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION/Local Clubs|
|1.12||Model By-laws, 1953, 1956, 1959, 1961, 1963, and 1966|
|1.13||By-laws, 1954, 1961, 1966, and undated|
|1||14||Certificate of Incorporation of Somerset BPW, 1986|
|15||Disbandment of Bordentown BPW, 1995|
|IV. MINUTES 1919-1996. (2.6 cubic feet)|
|Minutes of the meetings of the Executive Committee and the State Board. Document types (in addition to minutes) include agendas, committee reports, budgets, correspondence, motions, voting tallies, broadsides advertising events, and other documents which were distributed at the meeting.|
|The Executive Committee, comprised of the state officers, met monthly. The State Board (comprised of committee chairmen, state officers, club presidents and members) met quarterly (biannually after 1972) and held an annual post-convention meeting in May. Minutes are interfiled according to chronology.|
|Much of the documentation is of administrative matters such as elections, finances, fund-raising, announcements of scholarships and awards, and reports from committees and local clubs. Of greater interest are the federation's lobbying activities for such issues as continuing the State Bureau of Women and Children, admitting women to all Civil Service examinations, the Equal Rights Amendment and bond issues supporting education.|
|Of particular interest is a discussion at the 1942 annual convention meeting of the equal rights clause, which the federation lobbied to have included in the New Jersey Constitution of 1947. Also of interest is a discussion in a September 1975 meeting over whether the federation should align itself with the newly formed New Jersey Coalition for the ERA.|
|Also included are minutes of the annual Past Presidents' Club meeting, a group which coordinated the National Business Women's Week Dinner each October.|
|2.1||Minute Book, May 30, 1919-September 18, 1926|
|2||2-4||Copy of the Minute Book, 1919-1926|
|11||Annual Convention, May 1941|
|12||June 1941-May 1942|
|13||Annual Convention, May 1942|
|14||September 1942-May 1945|
|2.15-16||Annual Convention, 1943-1944|
|2||19-22||Annual Convention, 1946-1949|
|23||June 1949-May 1951|
|24-25||Annual Convention, 1950-1951|
|26-27||September 1951-May 1953|
|28||Annual Convention, 1953|
|29||June 1953-May 1954|
|30||Annual Convention, 1954|
|31||June 1954-May 1955|
|32||Annual Convention, 1955|
|33||June 1955-May 1957|
|34||Annual Convention, May 1957|
|45||State Board Meeting, May 1990|
|V. REPORTS OF COMMITTEES AND OFFICERS 1923-1994 (with gaps). (.6 cubic feet)|
|Reports of the state officers (including the president), standing and special committee chairwomen which were presented at regular meetings of the State Board. These reports, both typed and handwritten, form the basis of the published annual reports which appeared in the annual convention program. Committee functions included fund raising, education, awarding scholarships and prizes, legislation, setting the convention agenda, publicity, nominating officers, liaison with local clubs, membership, and emblem (the federation's logo). The series also includes reports of ad hoc committees such as health and safety, civil defense (from the early 1950s) and traffic safety (1960).|
|Of particular interest are the reports of the legislative chairman, which summarize the federation's agenda on both the state and national levels. The federation constantly lobbied for the equal rights amendment, as well as for the repeal of protective legislation, equal legal status, and equal employment opportunities for women. Also of interest are the reports of the membership committee chairman. The federation was constantly monitoring membership and trying to attract new members, particularly among young women.|
|After 1986, reports are filed with the minutes, with the exception of 1993-1994.|
|VI. TREASURER'S REPORTS, 1922-77, 1982-1998 (with gaps). (.7 cubic feet)|
|Quarterly and annual balance sheets itemizing income and expenditures. Beginning in 1988, reports were issued monthly. Some annual budgets are included. Also included are the annual convention accounting, as well as account statements of the NJBPW scholarship funds.|
|VII. TREASURER'S FILES, 1988-1995. (.4 cubic feet)|
|Grouped alphabetically by subject.|
|Primarily files of treasurer Maureen E. Plock. Document types include correspondence, reports, receipts and disbursements, and budgets.|
|Correspondence concerns the award of career development scholarships, and financial matters related to conventions and other events.|
|39||Budget and Membership, 1990-1991|
|42-43||Career Development, 1990-1991|
|44||Certificates of Deposit, 1988|
|2||Correspondence - Budget and Membership, 1990|
|6||Diamond Jubilee, 1989-1991|
|7||Executive Committee, 1990-1991|
|8||Tax Exempt Certificates, 1989|
|11||Receipts and Disbursements, Budget, etc, 1989-1990|
|12-14||Receipts and Disbursements, 1990-1993|
|15||Scholarship Event, 1992|
|VIII. AUDITED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, 1945/46, 1956/57-1992/93 (with gaps) (.3 cubic feet)|
|Independent auditor's statements for the fiscal years beginning June 1 and ending May 31. The 1957-1975 audits were conducted by the Princeton, New Jersey, firm of A. Braveman.|
|17.1||1945/46, and 1956/57|
|IX. NETWORKING COMMITTEE FILES, 1979-1985. (.4 cubic feet)|
|Grouped alphabetically by subject.|
|Files of the chairman of the state networking committee. These files represent three successive chairmen: Mary Gray, Marie Grisi, and Colleen M. Hart. Document types include correspondence, questionnaires, resumés, speeches, newsletters, articles, broadsides, directories, and newspaper clippings.|
|The state chairmen served as a liaison and resource for the networking committees in the local clubs, and gave out a networking award to the club with the best program. Includes documentation of networking workshops and the creation of the networking directory, which served to link members with various expertise to job-seekers.|
|6||16||Articles, undated, 1979-1981|
|18||Brochures, Pamphlets, and Newsletters, 1981-1984, and undated|
|21||Job Bank Information, undated|
|22||Members, Procedures, Miscellaneous, 1982-1984, and undated|
|23||Networking Award, 1985|
|24||New Jersey Women's Network Group, 1981-1983|
|25||Requests for Positions, undated|
|26||Resource Files, 1979-1983|
|28||Workshop Information, undated|
|X. NOMINATING COMMITTEE FILES 1985-1986. (5 folders)|
|Grouped alphabetically by subject.|
|Files of the chairman of the state nominating committee, which nominated candidates to run for state offices. Document types include correspondence, nomination forms, committee reports, lists of committee members, and candidate expense reports.|
|Includes correspondence between committee chairmen and local clubs which recommended candidates. Of particular interest are the nomination forms because they give details about candidates' careers and motivations.|
|32||Nomination Forms, 1985-1986|
|XI. POLICY AND PROCEDURES COMMITTEE FILES 1947-1977, 1991. (.2 cubic feet)|
|Grouped alphabetically by subject.|
|Documentation of federation policies and procedures including manuals, guidelines, and correspondence related to revisions. Includes three editions of the state federation's Policy and Procedures Manual: 1968, 1975 and 1977. Procedural issues covered include parliamentary procedure, convention protocols and guidelines for the office of state president. Also included are national guidelines for the state treasurer (1949-1961), the state convention portfolio issued by the national federation in 1949, and the National Handbook of Federation Procedures, 1957.|
|6||33||Convention Procedure, 1949|
|34||Handbook of Federation Procedures, 1957|
|35||Instructions to State Treasurer, 1947-1954|
|36||Instructions to State Treasurer, 1955-1961|
|37||Miscellaneous Procedures, 1949|
|38||Miscellaneous Procedures, 1957|
|XII. PROGRAM COMMITTEE FILES 1971-1989. (1 cubic foot)|
|Files of the program chairman, usually the first vice president of the state federation. Document types include correspondence, reports, speeches, contracts, receipts, broadsides, and newspaper clippings.|
|Documents all types of programs including workshops, seminars, fashion shows, dinners, and luncheons. Also includes programs held at state board meetings and state conventions. Topics were usually of interest to working women such as women in business, women in politics, legal issues affecting women, and small business administration. Correspondence is primarily with speakers, state and national officers and local club presidents. The program chairman served as a liaison between the national, state and local clubs, facilitating national objectives at the local level.|
|Also includes administrative correspondence related to the Mary L. Johnston Scholarship, the National Issues Management Award, and the State Assistance Award Program, which supported local club programs.|
|Of particular interest are letters from Senators Bill Bradley and Frank Lautenberg (1984) regarding the federation's legislative objectives.|
|46||State Seminar, 1973-1974|
|48||Program Development Conference, 1974-1975|
|49||Spring Seminar, 1974-1975|
|53||Spring Seminar, 1978-1979|
|7||1||Small Business Administrators Workshop, 1978-1979|
|3||Dependent Care, 1980s|
|4||Day Care Information, 1980s|
|9||State Board Meeting, September 1984|
|10||State Board Meeting, November 1984|
|11||State Board Meeting, February 1985|
|12||State Seminar, April 1985|
|14||State Board Meeting, May 1986|
|15||State Board Meeting, September 1986|
|16||State Board Meeting, November 1986|
|17-18||State Board Meeting, February 1987|
|19||State Seminar, April 1987|
|20||Convention Workshop, May 1987|
|21||State Board Meeting, September 1987|
|22||State Board Meeting, November 1987|
|23||State Board Meeting, February 1988|
|24||Convention, May 1988|
|25||Issues Management Questionnaire, May 1988|
|26||Computer Print-out Signs/Banners, 1987-1988|
|27||National Issues Management Awards, 1987-1988|
|28||Issues Management Committee: Agenda, Minutes, Misc, 1987-1988|
|29-31||State Board Meetings, 1988-1989|
|XIII. STATE OFFICE TASK FORCE FILES 1986-1987. (2 folders)|
|Files of ad hoc committee studying the feasibility of establishing a central office for the federation. Primarily questionnaires sent to state officers and former officers asking them about their needs and expenses. Also includes related correspondence and financial records.|
|The committee recommended accepting a proposal by Community Business Service to share an office in Westfield.|
|XIV. CONVENTION PROGRAMS AND ANNUAL REPORTS 1927-1997 (1.3 cubic feet)|
|Convention programs and annual reports of the state federation, some of which are annotated.|
|From 1927 to 1941 the annual report and program were published separately. Included are the programs from 1927 to 1941 and the annual reports from 1934 to 1941. Beginning in 1942 the program and reports appear together in a single volume. In addition to committee reports, reports from the local clubs are given. Beginning in 1941, the federation's newsletter, Chat, which gave news of local clubs, was included in the program. Chat became know as New Jersey Business Woman in 1966. From 1967, it was not printed in the convention program, although news of the local clubs was still included.|
|Of particular interest is a 1969 special booklet in celebration of the federation's fiftieth anniversary. Also of interest are the nominees for Young Career Woman of the Year, which are included in the programs, sometimes with comments.|
|Lacking from this series are the annual reports for the years 1963/64, 1980/81, and 1982/83.|
|XV. ROSTERS/State 1927-1968, 1992/93. (.5 cubic feet)|
|Grouped into two sub-series (state and local) and arranged chronologically within each sub-series.|
|Accompanying the rosters issued by the state BPW are 26 annual membership rosters, 1960-1978, of local BPW clubs in New Jersey, of which ten date from the year 1961/62. In addition to members' names and addresses, these rosters sometimes include a club's schedule of meetings for the year.|
|9||1-3||1953/54-1961/62, and 1992/93|
|9||4||Asbury Park-Newark, 1961/62-1967/68|
|XVII. NEWSLETTERS 1940-1998. (.5 cubic feet)|
|Newsletter of the state federation.|
|Originally known as The New Jersey Business and Professional Woman, in 1942 it became known as Chat. From 1944 until 1961, it was not published, except as part of the state convention program. In 1962, it began again under the name New Jersey Business Woman. In 1986, it was renamed The Voice of Working Women.|
|Early subjects covered include state and national convention reports, committee reports, news of local clubs, and rosters of state and local officers. From 1962, issues included a letter from the state president, articles on subjects of interest to club members such as the Equal Rights Amendment, women's legal status, higher education, and career changes, as well as national and international club news, profiles of club members, awards, advertisements for female-owned businesses, and photographs. In later years, topics included the need to address the decline in membership, the federation's archives, and obituaries, as well as the usual convention and local club reports.|
|Of particular interest is the appearance of African-American members in the 1960s, and male members in 1980. The August 1984 issue includes comments on the quality of the content and production of the publication. In 1985, it changed from a bi-monthly glossy magazine format to a quarterly newspaper format. In 1991, it changed to a newsletter format.|
|Several issues from the 1980s and 1990s are missing.|
|9||7||1940,1941, and 1943|
|XVIII. OTHER PUBLICATIONS 1928-1994. (5 folders)|
|Grouped into two sub-series and arranged thereunder chronologically.|
|Miscellaneous state and local publications, including brochures, directories, programs for events (particularly fashion shows in the 1980s), and newsletters including a state women's health newsletter (1992 and 1994) and local newsletters from the Metropolitan (1985) and Montclair (1945-1946) clubs.|
|9||26||1928 and 1955|
|XIX. OTHER PUBLICATIONS/Local|
|XX. CHARTERS 1966-1975. (.25 cubic feet)|
|Grouped alphabetically by club name.|
|Charters of clubs belonging to the New Jersey Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, charters of the Nike and Samothrace Clubs, the teenage affiliates of the local B.P.W. clubs, and related correspondence and statistics.|
|Most of the documents in this series were assembled in 1967 by then state BPW archivist Genevieve Ford. Included is correspondence between Ford and the club secretaries in response to Ford's request for information pertinent to the charters.|
|Also included in this series is a chronology of the chartered clubs in the N.J. Federation, including information on merged and disbanded clubs.|
|The Somerset Club's charter is filed separately with other oversized items.|
|9||31||[Lists and Statistics], 1966-1975|
|38||Nike and Samothrace Clubs 1960s|
|XXI. MEMBERSHIP STATEMENTS 1947-1975 and 1990-1994. (4 cubic feet)|
|Grouped chronologically by year and thereunder alphabetically by local club name.|
|Annual statements of local BPW clubs listing dues paying members, their addresses, occupations and employers.|
|These are carbon copies of statements sent to the national BPW. While the 1946-1960 format differs from 1961-1974, the informational content is identical. Additional membership documentation includes: membership stabilization reports (1948-1957), resignation and death forms (1958-1961), membership recapitulations (1973-1974), rosters of officers (1962-1974), obituaries (1949-1950), dues remittance summaries (1990-1993), dues reports (1993-1995), membership reports (1956-57), and lists of officers and committee chairmen (1973-1974).|
|42||Asbury Park-Burlington County, 1948-1950|
|43||Burlington County-Cumberland County, 1948-1950|
|46||Morristown-New Brunswick, 1948-1950|
|48||Paterson-Red Bank, 1949-1950|
|49||Rutherford-Toms River, 1948-1950|
|50||Toms River-Westfield, 1948-1950|
|10||1||Asbury Park-Morristown, 1950-1951|
|2||New Brunswisk-Princeton, 1950-1951|
|3||Red Bank-Westfield, 1950-1951|
|5||Morristown-Point Pleasant 1953-1954|
|7||Asbury Park-Livingston, 1954-1955|
|10||Asbury Park-Dunellen, 1955-1956|
|15||Membership Report and Miscellaneous, 1956-1957|
|16||Asbury Park-Burlington County, 1956-1957|
|19||Morristown-North Hudson, 1956-1957|
|20||Orange-Perth Amboy, 1956-1957|
|22||Red Bank-Summit, 1956-1957|
|24||Stabilization Report: Asbury Park-Newark, 1957|
|25||Asbury Park-Elizabeth, 1957-1958|
|27||Livingston-New Brunswick, 1957-1958|
|28||Newark-Point Pleasant, 1957-1958|
|31||Obituary Records, 1949-1958|
|32||Resignation Forms, 1958|
|33||Asbury Park-Hillside, 1958-1959|
|35||New Brunswick-Point Pleasant, 1958-1959|
|37||Toms River-Woodbridge, 1958-1959|
|38||Asbury Park-Cumberland, 1959-1960|
|39||Elizabeth-New Brunswick, 1959-1960|
|42||Resignation Forms, 1959-1960|
|43||Asbury Park-Edison, 1960-1961|
|46||Point Pleasant-Sussex, 1960-1961|
|47||Toms River-Woodbridge, 1960-1961|
|48||Resignation Forms, 1960-1961|
|49||Asbury Park-Elizabeth, 1961-1962|
|3||Plainfield-South Plainfield, 1961-1962|
|5||Asbury Park-Cranford, 1962-1963|
|7||Matawan-Point Pleasant, 1962-1963|
|9||Toms River-Woodbridge, 1962-1963|
|10||Officers and Committee Chairmen, 1962-1963|
|11||Asbury Park-Cumberland, 1963-1964|
|12||East Bergen-Jersey City, 1963-1964|
|14||Orange-Point Pleasant, 1963-1964|
|17||Asbury Park-Woodbridge, 1964-1965|
|18||Asbury Park-Camden County 1964-1965|
|19||Camden County-Fort Lee, 1964-1965|
|23||Morristown-Perth Amboy, 1964-1965|
|24||Phillipsburg-South Plainfield, 1964-1965|
|26||Asbury Park-Cumberland, 1965-1966|
|27||East Bergen-Jersey City, 1965-1966|
|30||Somerset-Toms River, 1965-1966|
|32||Asbury Park-Woodbridge, 1965-1966|
|33||Club Heads, 1965-1966|
|34||Asbury Park-Cranford, 1965-1966|
|35||Cumberland-Jersey City, 1965-1966|
|37||New Brunswick-Princeton, 1965-1966|
|40||Asbury Park-Carteret, 1966-1967|
|41||Connecticut Farms (Union)-Hoboken, 1966-1967|
|42||Irvington-Jersey City, 1966-1967|
|12||1||Asbury Park-Cumberland, 1968-1969|
|2||East Bergen-Hoboken, 1968-1969|
|4||Molly Pitcher-Plainfield, 1968-1969|
|5||Point Pleasant-Summit, 1968-1969|
|7||General Information, 1968-1969|
|8||Asbury Park-Cranford, 1969-1970|
|9||Cumberland-Jersey City, 1969-1970|
|11||New Brunswick-Point Pleasant, 1969-1970|
|13||Toms River-Woodbridge, 1969-1970|
|14||Asbury Park-Cranford, 1970-1971|
|15||Cumberland-Jersey City, 1970-1971|
|17||New Brunswick-Princeton, 1970-1971|
|19||Toms River-Woodbridge, 1970-1971|
|20||Asbury Park-Cranford, 1971-1972|
|21||Cumberland-Jersey City, 1971-1972|
|22||Lakeland-New Brunswick, 1971-1972|
|25||Toms River-Woodbridge, 1971-1972|
|26||Asbury Park-Connecticut Farms (Union), 1972-1973|
|30||Metuchen-New Brunswick, 1972-1973|
|31||Orange-Point Pleasant, 1972-1973|
|32||Princeton-South Plainfield, 1972-1973|
|35||Asbury Park-Camden, 1973-1974|
|41||Point Pleasant-Somerset, 1973-1974|
|42||South Plainfield-Trenton, 1973-1974|
|44||Membership Recap, 1973-1974|
|45||Officers and Committee Chairmen, 1973-1974|
|46||Asbury Park-Central Bergen, 1974-1975|
|47||Connecticut Farms (Union)-Gloucester, 1974-1975|
|48||Hightstown-Lower Camden, 1974-1975|
|3||Toms River-Woodbridge, 1974-1975|
|4-7||Dues Remittance Summary, 1990-1991|
|8||Dues Remittance Summary, Atlantic Area-East Bergen, 1991-1992|
|9||Dues Remittance Summary, Freehold-Lower Camden, 1991-1992|
|10||Dues Remittance Summary, Madison-New Brunswick, 1991-1992|
|11||Dues Remittance Summary, Northwest Morris-Princeton, 1991-1992|
|12||Dues Remittance Summary, Raritan-Suburban Essex, 1991-1992|
|13||Dues Remittance Summary, Summit-Sussex, 1991-1992|
|14||Dues Remittance Summary, Trenton-Westfield, 1991-1992|
|15||Dues Remittance Summary, Atlantic Area-Hightstown, 1992-1993|
|16||Dues Remittance Summary, Hillside-Millburn, 1992-1993|
|17||Dues Remittance Summary, Morristown-Raritan Bay, 1992-1993|
|18||Dues Remittance Summary, Somerset-Sussex, 1992-1993|
|19||Dues Remittance Summary, Trenton-Westfield, 1992-1993|
|20||Dues Reports, 1990-1991|
|21||Dues Reports, Atlantic City-Bernardsville, 1994-1995|
|22||Dues Reports, Burlington-East Bergen, 1994-1995|
|23||Dues Reports, Freehold-Hightstown, 1994-1995|
|24||Dues Reports, Hillside-Lower Camden, 1993-1994|
|25||Dues Reports, Middlebrook-Morristown, 1993-1995|
|26||Dues Reports, New Brunswick-Oranges, 1993-1994|
|27||Dues Reports, Point Pleasant-Raritan Bay, 1993-1995|
|28||Dues Reports, Somerset-Suburban Essex, 1993-1995|
|29||Dues Reports, Summit-Sussex, 1993-1995|
|30||Dues Reports, Trenton-Westfield, 1993-1995|
|XXII. PRESIDENT'S GENERAL FILES 1927-1988. (1 cubic foot)|
|Central file kept by the state president. Document types include correspondence, programs, committee reports, speeches, questionnaires, menus, newspaper clippings, and publications.|
|Correspondence is primarily with state and national officers. Subjects include convention planning, appointments, elections, scholarship awards, legislation, fund-raising, publicity and public relations, maintaining membership levels, and routine administrative matters. As early as 1949 New Jersey was identified as having a low proportion of members. Of interest is correspondence concerning lobbying campaigns for the nomination of more women to government positions (1946), equal pay for equal work (1949-1951), the repeal of protective legislation, and the Equal Rights Amendment.|
|Unusual items include a brochure (ca. 1935) advertising travel to the Atlantic City convention via airship, photographs of a hospital airplane and aircraft rescue boat for which the federation raised money during the Second World War, and a large paper bag designed as a tribute to state legislation chairman Emma McGall.|
|Includes one oversize broadside filed separately.|
|51||"Hospital Service Plane", undated|
|7||Script for the National Federation Slides, 1962|
|11||District Organization, 1963-1964|
|12||Tribute to Emma Dillon, 1964|
|13||Emma McGall, undated|
|16||New Jersey Federation Blood Bank, 1964-1965|
|19||Publicity Releases and Clippings, 1965-1966|
|28-29||Reports A, 1970-1971|
|30||Public Relations Questionnaire, 1971|
|38||Past President's Club, 1946-1972|
|39||Songs, 1948-1956, and undated|
|40||International Federation, 1947-1965|
|41-42||BPW Foundation, 1958-1972, and undated|
|1||Broadside, ca. 1942|
|XXIII. PRESS CLIPPINGS 1929-1978 (with gaps). (.25 cubic feet)|
|Articles about the NJBPW and its activities clipped from various New Jersey newspapers. Includes articles on the federation's support for legislation, announcements of scheduled events and reports of programs conducted by local clubs as well as by the state federation.|
|In 1944-1946, the federation subscribed to a clipping service, so coverage is very complete. Someone also regularly clipped articles during 1949 to 1953. Other years have only scattered coverage.|
|A file of clippings about Edna Portman, state president from 1930 to 1932 contains a related letter and press release.|
|21||Press Clippings and Press Releases, 1944-1946|
|25||Edna Portman, 1930s-1960s|
|XXIV. RESOLUTIONS, PROCLAMATIONS, AND CERTIFICATES 1952-57, 1966-1994 (with gaps) and undated. (.25 cubic feet)|
|Grouped by document type and thereunder arranged chronologically.|
|Resolutions of state and local governments and signed proclamations of the New Jersey governor acknowledging National Business Woman's Week, together with certificates recognizing activities of the state BPW.|
|Certificates received from the national federation cite the NJBPW for adding new clubs during 1952-1957 and for per capita contributions in 1977. Also includes certificates recognizing BPW endeavors from the New Jersey State Museum (1976), the New Jersey Bicentennial Commission (1976), the New Jersey Division of Youth and Family Services (1987) and the National Girl Scouts, Region II (undated).|
|Several oversized items are filed separately.|
|27||Certificates, 1976-1978, 1987, 1989, and undated|
|28||Proclamations, 1976-1978, 1987, 1989, and undated|
|29||Resolutions, 1978-1979, 1982-1983, 1986, 1991, and undated|
|1||11 items, 1976-1992|
|XXV. PHOTOGRAPHS 1925-1993. (1 cubic foot)|
|Arranged chronologically, with photographs of NJBPW members at the national convention in a separate sequence.|
|Black and white photographs consisting primarily of group portraits taken at state and national conventions. These photographs vary in size from 6 x 8 to 11 x 30 inches. Also includes 3 x 5 and 4 x 6 color snapshots of state officers and events (such as the yearly fashion show) from the 1980s and 1990s. Some photographs have been made into 8 x 10 collages which were used in a display.|
|Of interest are color snapshots of Governor James Florio with federation officers on the occasion of the signing of the Mammography Bill.|
|Oversized black and white group portraits are stored separately.|
|18||Broadside announcing the candidacy of Sister Carmela Marie Cristiano, S.C., for first Vice President of New Jersey Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc. , ca. 1970s (1 item)|
|Newspaper photograph of Eleanor Steger, Miss Catherine Clapham, and Miss Caroline Schultz , undated (1 item)|
|State Convention, souvenir photos, 1948 (3 items)|
|Woman holding cat, undated (1 item)|
|Photographs outside the State Convention, Atlantic City, 1920s-1940s (7 items)|
|Convention party at Helen Hurd's House in Deal, May 1948 May 1948 (1 item)|
|In appreciation card from Grace B. Danick, 1960 (1 item)|
|Photographs from the State Convention, 1920s-1950s? (8 items)|
|Photograph of Miss Margaret Warner announcing a memorial gift in the name of Dr. Emily Hickman and Mrs. A. Haines Lippincott to the New Jersey College for Women. Also pictured: Miss Margaret T. Corwin, Miss Marianne Schmidt, and Mrs. O. Wesley Davidson, undated (1 item)|
|Photograph of banquet at Asbury Park, Convention, 1960-61 (1 item)|
|Photograph of Roberta Halligan and Marguerite Rawalt, Miami Beach, FL, July 1956 (1 item)|
|Photograph of Libby E. Sachar and Mrs. Roberta Halligan with portrait of Dr. Lena Madesin Phillips, July 1956 (2 items)|
|Photographs of Officers, 1936 and 1960-61 (2 items)|
|Photograph of New Jersey Federation of Business Women and a speaker from India, Atlantic City, May 1947 (1 item)|
|Photographs from the Biennial Convention, Atlantic City, 1937 (2 items)|
|Unidentified State Event, ca. 1950s-1960s (6 items)|
|State Convention, 1961 (1 item)|
|State Convention, 1962 (2 items)|
|Joint Meeting of BPW and New Jersey Federation of Negro BPW, undated (1 item)|
|A Federation plaque honoring Emma Dillon presented to Adrian Foley, President of the New Jersey Bar Association, from Emma C. McGall, the State President and Margaret Hagerman, president of Trenton BPW and unknown woman, September 25, 1961 (1 item)|
|Photograph of Grace Ullemeyer, Lillian Lodgo (President of Connecticut Farms BPW), Marguerite Rawalt, and Helen Hurd (State President) holding a sign for Connecticut Farms BPW Year book, 1965-66 (1 item)|
|Souvenir photos of Liberty Grove sign, New Jersey, post-1977 (1 item)|
|19||National Convention, ca.1982-ca.1992 (86 items)|
|Unidentified State Event, ca.1990s (6 items)|
|State or National Convention, 1970s (3 items)|
|Barbara Bush, George Bush, Elizabeth Dole, and Lloyd Bernstein speaking at National Convention, 1992 (4 items)|
|Unidentified House, ca. 1980s-1990s (1 item)|
|New Jersey Devils Game, ca. 1990s (3 items)|
|State Convention, 1980s-1992 (80 items)|
|20||Unidentified National Event, ca. 1990s (5 items)|
|Unidentified Christmas Party, ca. 1990s (1 item)|
|National Convention, 1970s, 1991-1992 (37 items)|
|Unidentified State Event, ca. 1990s (9 items)|
|Florio signs the Mammography Bill , 1991 (7 items)|
|State Board Meeting, 1991, ca. 1991-1992 (10 items)|
|Debutantes Ball, 1991 (3 items)|
|State Fashion Show, 1991 (9 items)|
|State Convention, 1991 (1 item)|
|State Convention, photograph of Jim Florio, 1993 (1 item)|
|New Jersey Delegates at National Convention, 1990 (2 items)|
|Collages of the 1980s-1990s (6 items)|
|21||State Convention Group Photograph, 1929, 1936 (3 items)|
|Untitled Group Photograph, in corner labeled "#868 March 21-31, Plaza JC.", ca. 1920s-1930s (1 item)|
|Annual State Banquet Group Photograph, 1935 (1 item)|
|National Dinner of the Board of Directions Group Photograph, 1937 (1 item)|
|National Federation's Speaker's Table Group Photograph, 1939 (1 item)|
|Untitled Group Photograph, on back labeled "Doring, Jessie Wink Wortte [Wortle] 1931- 1939, 1939? probably National Convention, 1937", ca. 1931-1939 (1 item)|
|23||Photograph Negatives, 1991, 1992, ca. 1990s|
|2||National Annual Convention Group Photograph, 1925 (1 item)|
|State Convention Group Photograph, 1932 (1 item)|
|National Biennial Convention Group Photograph, 1937 (1 item)|
|3||State Convention Group Photograph, 1933, 1939 (3 items)|
|XXVII. MEMORABILIA 1921-1937 and 1971/72, 1976 and 1994/95. (1 newspaper box)|
|There are seven ribbons (two include badges) from state conventions dating from 1928 to 1934. Seven additional badges and ribbons are from national conventions dating from 1921 to 1937. Several bear the name tag of delegates Anne Rece (of Plainfield) and one of Georgia Ricker (also of Plainfield). Also includes stickers (several of which promote the Equal Rights Amendment), a decal transfer, a 1976 bicentennial flag, and a miniature wooden house dated 1994-1995. Undated material includes ribbons and violet flower pins, an Alaska pin, a cardboard New Jersey convention emblem, a miniature straw hat, and a medallion. One flower pin is dated 1971.|
|23||State Convention Ribbons, 1928-1934 (7 items)|
|National Convention Badges and Ribbons, 1921-1937|
|Stickers - including six Equal Rights Amendment stickers, undated (59 items)|
|Printout - Building Woman Power, Politically, Professionally, Personally BPW/USA, undated (1 item)|
|Decal Transfers undated (2 items)|
|Ribbon - blue felt, 1971-72 (1 item)|
|Pin - "Speak up, Join BPW," undated (1 item)|
|Pin - "ERA is for Everyone...", undated (1 item)|
|Pin - "...U Work 4 Us, We Work 4 U", undated (1 item)|
|Decorative Wood House, "Linda S. Worman, NJ/BPW Treasurer, Elections of 1994-1995" (1 item)|
|Bicentennial Flag - "NJ 76," 1976 (1 item)|
|Ribbon- "Eastburn for Recording Secretary," undated (1 item)|
|Ribbon - off white with "New Jersey" in black lettering, with purple cloth flowers, undated (1 item)|
|Mini Straw Hat, undated (1 item)|
|Cardboard cutout of horse and rider, black, undated (1 item)|
|Pin - fake fur purple flower, with fake green stems and a pink bow, with gold pipe cleaners, undated (1 item)|
|Campaign booklet endorsing Hawaiian Federation Member Piilani C. Desha for reelection to the office of National Recording Secretary, with picture and personal facts about the candidate, Hawaiian recipes, songs; a white, pink and yellow flower pin and an Alaska pin with the words "Vote for Desha", undated (1 item)|
|Business and Professional Women USA|
|I. NATIONAL BUSINESS WOMAN 1924, 1928-1929, 1943, 1949 and 1956-1996. (1.5 cubic feet)|
|National federation organ, published monthly (in ten issues per year) from New York City. The August number contains annual reports; the April issue previews the annual convention. Originally known as Independent Woman, the magazine became National Business Woman in 1956.|
|Approximately two-thirds of the issues from the period 1969-1986 are included in the collection.|
|44||1943, and 1949|
|II. CONVENTION DOCUMENTS 1923-1978 and 1988-1994. (.75 cubic feet)|
|Programs, annual reports, proceedings and delegate kits from the national convention.|
|Some documents include annotations by attending New Jersey delegates, while others record the votes for national officers.|
|10||Call to Convention, 1929|
|12||Annual Reports, 1929|
|14||International Relations Night Program, 1931|
|17||Annual Reports, 1937|
|18||Programs, 1939, 1944, and 1946|
|23||Annual Reports, 1954|
|26||Call to Convention, 1958|
|29||Annual Reports, 1958|
|31||Delegate Kit, 1960|
|32||Delegate Kit, 1962|
|35||Closing Night Program, 1963|
|37||Delegate Kit, 1964|
|39||Delegate Kit, 1965|
|43||Delegate Kit, 1969|
|45||Delegate Kit, 1972|
|47||Annual Reports, 1973-1976|
|49||Programs, 1988 and 1990|
|50||Programs and Brochure, 1991-1992, 1994|
|III. OTHER PUBLICATIONS 1928-1991. (.2 cubic feet)|
|Grouped alphabetically by type and arranged thereunder chronologically.|
|Various publications of the BPWUSA and the Business and Professional Women's Foundation, including annual reports, bibliographies, newsletters, the national program, reports, calendars, handbooks and brochures.|
|16||51||Action Manual, 1978|
|52||Foundation--Annual Reports, 1972 and 1991|
|54||Foundation--Miscellaneous, 1969 and undated|
|58||Miscellaneous--Newsletters and Brochure, 1969-1983|
|59||Program Handbook, 1928|
|IV. MISCELLANY 1957. (1 folder)|
|Reel-to-reel audiotape of the dedication of the new headquarters of the national federation in Washington, D.C. Includes correspondence relating to the purchase of this copy by the New Jersey federation.|
|Also includes two oversized broadsides filed separately.|
|16||60||Dedication Ceremony (audio tape), 1957|
|1||Leaf-shaped New Jersey sign, undated|
|Tribute to Genevieve Ford, undated|